Taking action on smoking and health
A study of nine Scottish hospitals found a 17 per cent fall in admissions for heart attacks in the first year after the smoke-free legislation came into force. The research is part of a national evaluation of the impact of Scotland's smoke-free legislation which shows that the smoke-free legislation has had an overwhelmingly positive effect.
The evaluation found that after the legislation came into force there was:
Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact? Sally J. Haw, Laurence Gruer OBE, Amanda Amos, Candace Currie, Colin Fischbacher, Geoffrey T. Fong, Gerard Hastings, Sally Malam, Jill Pell, Calum Scott and Sean Semple Journal of Public Health, Volume 28, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 24-30(7) http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/1/24
Covert observation in practice: lessons from the evaluation of the prohibition of smoking in public places in Scotland Mark P Petticrew, Sean Semple, Shona Hilton, Karen S Creely, Douglas Eadie, Deborah Ritchie, Catherine Ferrell, Yvette Christopher and Fintan Hurley BMC Public Health 2007, 7:204 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-204 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/7/204/abstract Acronyms: (CHETS) Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke study (BHETSE) The bar workers' health and ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) exposure study (STOPIT) Study of public place interventions on tobacco exposure (HEPS) Health education population study
Volunteered, negotiated, enforced: family politics and the regulation of home smokingJude Robinson, Deborah Ritchie, Amanda Amos, Sarah Cunningham-Burley and Lorraine Greaves.Sociology of Health and Illness. Vol. 33(1): 66-80. January 2011.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01273.x/abstract
'Waiting until they got home': Gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland Jude Robinson, Deborah Ritchie, Amanda Amos, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Lorraine Greaves and Claudia Martin.Social Science and Medicine, 71 (5), pp. 884-890. 2010.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20580143
'But it just has that sort of feel about it, a leper'—Stigma, smoke-free legislation and public healthDeborah Ritchie, Amanda Amos and Claudia Martin.Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 2010. 12 (6): 622-629. http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/6/622.abstract
Smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for childhood asthma Daniel Mackay, Ph.D., Sally Haw, B.Sc., Jon G. Ayres, M.D., Colin Fischbacher, M.B., Ch.B., and Jill P. Pell, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine, 2010; 363:1139-1145. September 16, 2010 www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1002861
Responding to change: how did bar workers adapt to the smoke-free legislation in Scotland? Douglas R. Eadie, Susan G. MacAskill, Derek Heim, Gerard B. Hastings International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Volume 20, Issue 1 February 2010 , pages 13 - 26
UK Smoke-Free Legislation: Changes in PM2.5 Concentrations in Bars in Scotland, England, and Wales
Sean Semple1, Martie Van Tongeren, Karen S. Galea, Laura Maccalman, Ivan Gee, Odette Parry, Audrey Naji, and Jon G. Ayres Annals of Occupational Hygiene (published online 19 February 2010) Abstract or full text available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172917 Are there health benefits associated with comprehensive smoke-free laws? P G Goodman, S Haw, Z Kabir, L Clancy Int J Public Health. 2009;54(6):365-6. (published online October 2009) www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882106
Public health or social impacts? A qualitative analysis of attitudes toward the smoke-free legislation in Scotland D Heim, A Ross, D Eadie, S MacAskill, J B Davies, G Hastings, and S Haw Nicotine and Tobacco Research. (published online on 29 October 2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875764
Socioeconomic differences in second-hand smoke exposure among children in Scotland after introduction of the smoke-free legislation Patricia C Akhtar, Sally J Haw, Kate A Levin, Dorothy B Currie, Rachel Zachary, Candace E Currie J Epidemiol Community Health 2010;64:341-346 doi:10.1136/jech.2008.084178 (published online 13 August 2009) jech.bmj.com/content/64/4/341.abstract (CHETS)
Smoking restrictions in the home and secondhand smoke exposure among primary schoolchildren before and after introduction of the Scottish smoke-free legislation Patricia C Akhtar, Sally J Haw, Dorothy B Currie, Rachel Zachary, Candace E Currie Tob Control doi:10.1136/tc.2009.030627 (published online 10 August 2009) tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/early/2009/08/10/tc.2009.030627.abstract (CHETS) The triumph of national smoke-free legislation (featured editorial) Jill P Pell and Sally Haw Heart 2009;95:1377-1379 doi:10.1136/hrt.2009.176230 (published online 07 June 2009) heart.bmj.com/content/95/17/1377.extract?sid=f68d2c12-f112-4107-8104-d93280cd2eea (STOPIT) Action to achieve smoke-free homes- an exploration of experts' views Deborah Ritchie, Amanda Amos, Richard Phillips, Sarah Cunningham-Burley and Claudia Martin BMC Public Health 2009, 9:112doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-112 www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/9/112
Secondhand smoke exposure and survival following acute coronary syndrome: prospective cohort study of 1261 consecutive admissions among never-smokers J P Pell, S Haw, S Cobbe, D E Newby, A C H Pell, C Fischbacher, S Pringle, D Murdoch, F Dunn, K Oldroyd, P MacIntyre, B O'Rourke, W Borland Heart 2009;95:1415-1418 doi:10.1136/hrt.2009.171702 heart.bmj.com/content/95/17/1415.short (STOPIT)
Bar workers' Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure (BHETSE): Symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland Jon G Ayres, Sean Semple, Laura MacCalman, Scott Dempsey, Shona Hilton, Finton J Hurley, Brian G Miller, Audrey Naji and Mark Petticrew Occupational and Environmental Medicine doi:10.1136/oem.2008.040311 (published online on 10 February 2009) http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/oem.2008.040311v1 (BHETSE)
The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys Andrew Hyland, Louise M. Hassan, Cheryl Higbee, Christian Boudreau, Geoffrey T. Fong, Ron Borland, K. Michael Cummings, Mi Yan, Mary E. Thompson and Gerard Hastings The European Journal of Public Health doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckn141 (published online 16 January 2009)http://eurpub.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/2/198 Care-home workers' exposure to SHS: a short summary of findings S Semple, A Naji, S Haw, J G Ayres Occup Environ Med 2009;66:639-640 doi:10.1136/oem.2009.045864 (published online 16 January 2009) oem.bmj.com/content/66/9/639.2.extract
Scottish smoke-free legislation and trends in smoking cessation Freya J. I. Fowkes, Marlene C. W. Stewart, F. Gerald R. Fowkes, Amanda Amos and Jackie F. Price Addiction 103(11): 1888 - 1895 doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02350.x (published online on 16 October 2008) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121458999/abstract
The impact of the 2006 Scottish smoke-free legislation on sales of nicotine replacement therapy Sarah A. Lewis, Sally J. Haw, and Ann McNeill Nicotine and Tobacco Research 10(12): 1789-92http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023830
Smoke-free Legislation and Hospitalizations for Acute Coronary Syndrome Jill P. Pell, M.D., Sally Haw, B.Sc., Stuart Cobbe, M.D., David E. Newby, Ph.D., Alastair C.H. Pell, M.D., Colin Fischbacher, M.B., Ch.B., Alex McConnachie, Ph.D., Stuart Pringle, M.D., David Murdoch, M.B., Ch.B., Frank Dunn, M.D., Keith Oldroyd, M.D., Paul MacIntyre, M.D., Brian O'Rourke, M.D., and William Borland, B.Sc. New England Journal of Medicine 359(5):482-491 http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/359/5/482 (STOPIT) (Note: this research was voted top in the American Heart Association's Top 10 Research Advances of 2008 'In Scotland, after smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed places was implemented, hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome decreased 17 per cent, compared with only a 4 per cent decrease in England, where there was no such legislation. The decrease in Scotland was highest in never-smokers, but there was also a smaller decrease in former smokers. Smokers had the lowest decrease, but saw a 14 per cent decline. Of the decrease in hospital admissions, 67 per cent were nonsmokers, supporting the argument that protection for these individuals is an important benefit of this legislation, and it should be extended more broadly.')
Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons' behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland Shona Hilton, Jane Cameron, Alice MacLean and Mark Petticrew BMC Public Health 2008(8): 238 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-238 (published 14 July 2008) http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/238 (BHETSE)
Validity of self-reported smoking status: Comparison of patients admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome and the general population Jill P. Pell, Sally J. Haw, Stuart M. Cobbe, David E. Newby, Alastair C. H. Pell, Keith G. Oldroyd, David L. Murdoch, Stuart D. Pringle, Frank G. Dunn, Paul D. MacIntyre, Timothy J. Gilbert , Colin M. Fischbacher, William Borland Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 10, Issue 5 May 2008 , pages 861 - 866 After the smoke has cleared-Reflections on Scotland's tobacco control legislation P. Donnelly and P. Whittle Public Health 122(8): 762-766 doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2008.03.003 (published online 15 May 2008) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18485428
A qualitative analysis of compliance with smoke-free legislation in community bars in Scotland: implications for public health Douglas Eadie, Derek Heim, Susan MacAskill, Alastair Ross, Gerard Hastings and John Davies Addiction 103(6): 1019 - 1026 doi :10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02217.x (published online on 28 June 2008) www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119412011/abstract Impact of smoking cessation and lifetime exposure on C-reactive protein Claire E. Hastie, Sally Haw, Jill P. Pell Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 10, Issue 4 April 2008, pages 637 - 642
Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure
Sean Semple, Laura Maccalman, Audrey Atherton Naji, Scott Dempsey, Shona Hilton, Brian G. Miller and Jon G. Ayres Annals of Occupational Hygiene Advance Access (published online on September 10, 2007)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17846033
Smoking in the home after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland: qualitative study Richard Phillips, Amanda Amos, Deborah Ritchie, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Claudia Martin BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.39301.497593.55 (published 9 September 2007) www.bmj.com/content/335/7619/553
Changes in child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (CHETS) study after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: national cross sectional survey Patricia C Akhtar, Dorothy B Currie, Candace E Currie, Sally J Haw BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.39311.550197.AE (published 9 September 2007)www.bmj.com/content/335/7619/545 (CHETS)
Changes in exposure of adult non-smokers to second-hand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: national cross sectional survey Sally J Haw, Laurence Gruer BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.39315.670208.47 (published 9 September 2007) http://www.bmj.com/content/335/7619/549 (HEPS)
Impact of socioeconomic deprivation and type of facility on perceptions of the Scottish smoke-free legislation Lorna Richmond, Sally Haw and Jill P. Pell Journal of Public Health 2007 29(4):376-378; doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdm056 http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/29/4/376
Expectations and changing attitudes of bar workers before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland Shona Hilton , Sean Semple , Brian G Miller , Laura MacCalman , Mark Petticrew , Scott Dempsey , Audrey Naji and Jon G Ayres BMC Public Health 2007, 7:206 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-206 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/7/206/abstract (BHETSE)
Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs: the effect of smoke-free legislation Sean Semple, Karen S Creely, Audrey Naji, Brian G Miller and Jon G Ayres Tobacco Control 2007;16:127-132; doi:10.1136/tc.2006.018119 http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/16/2/127 (BHETSE)
Short-run economic effects of the Scottish smoking ban Jérôme Adda, Samuel Berlinski and Stephen Machin International Journal of Epidemiology 2007 36(1):149-154; doi:10.1093/ije/dyl258 http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/36/1/149
Respiratory Symptoms, Pulmonary Function, and Markers of Inflammation Among Bar Workers Before and After a Legislative Ban on Smoking in Public Places Daniel Menzies; Arun Nair; Peter A. Williamson; Stuart Schembri; Mudher Z. H. Al-Khairalla; Martyn Barnes; Tom C. Fardon; Lesley McFarlane; Gareth J. Magee; Brian J. Lipworth Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;296:1742-1748. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/296/14/1742
February 2016 - Updated Cochrane ReviewFrazer K, Callinan JE, McHugh J, van Baarsel S, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD005992. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005992.pub3.
January 2016Lun Le S, Hing Sang Wong W, Lung Lau Y. Smoke-free legislation reduces hospital admissions for childhood lower respiratory tract infection. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 14 January 2016After legislation implementation, there was an immediate effect with a change in the admission count of −33.5% (95% CI −36.4% to −30.5%), and a change in time trend to −13.9% per year (95% CI −16.0% to −11.7%). Overall, the legislation was associated with a net 47.4% reduction in admission counts in the first year.
Smoke-free legislation in England was associated with clinically important reductions in severe adverse perinatal outcomes.Been J V et al. Impact of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and infant mortality: a national quasi-experimental study. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13020 (2015).
Effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysisSmoke-free legislation is associated with substantial reductions in preterm births and hospital attendance for asthma. Together with the health benefits in adults, this study provides strong support for WHO recommendations to create smoke-free environments.
Action on Smoking & Health (Scotland) (ASH Scotland) is a registered Scottish charity (SC 010412) and a company limited by guarantee(Scottish company no 141711). The registered office is 8 Frederick Street, Edinburgh EH2 2HB.
ASH Scotland acknowledges with thanks the support of the British Heart Foundation and the Scottish Government in developing our website.