Taking action on smoking and health
Note of caution
After careful deliberation we have added preprint articles, i.e. not yet peer reviewed scientific articles. This is not something we would ordinarily do. However, the peer review process can take some time in what is currently a fast-moving situation. Some preprints have already proven a valuable source in the research community. Hence, given the urgency of the situation we feel that it is important these papers are considered. However, there is an increased risk of errors and incorrect claims made in preprints/unpublished articles. We invite readers to interpret these with due consideration. These papers can be found at the bottom of the page.
Tobacco Industry funding. The Tobacco Industry (TI) has a history of influencing research, and indeed many scientific journals do not accept papers with TI funding for this reason. Due to the connection between Covid-19 and smoking and nicotine, it is a prime opportunity for TI to seek to influence research and this is not always easy to identify. There is evidence this may indeed be occurring. For more information on this please follow the below links:
Stopping Tobacco Organisations and Products (STOP.)
(If you identify any errors or would like new or missing papers to be included please email us on email@example.com. Some papers are preprints, newer versions are likely to become available or some papers may be rejected for publication)
Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020 Mar 24;8(1):e35.
Farsalinos c, Barbouni A, Niaura R. Systematic review of the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China: could nicotine be a therapeutic option? Internal and Emergency Medicinie. 09/05/2020 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02355-7
Fu L, Wang B, Yuan T, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 10/04/2020 2020;80(6):656‐665. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.041
Guo FR. Smoking Links to the Severity of Covid-19: An Update of a Meta-Analysis. J Med Vir. 05/05/2020 https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25967 [update of Zhao et al, The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of Covid-19. 15/05/2020
Lippi G, Henry BM. Active smoking is not associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Eur J Intern Med. 2020 Mar 16:S0953-6205(20)30110-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2020.03.014.https://www.ejinme.com/article/S0953-6205(20)30110-2/pdf
Patanavanich R, Glantz SA. Smoking is Associated with COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-Analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 11/05/2020 ntaa082, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa082
Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis. 2020 Mar 20;18:20. doi: 10.18332/tid/119324. http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/COVID-19-and-smoking-A-systematic-review-of-the-evidence,119324,0,2.html
Zhao Q, Meng M, Kumar R, et al. The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of Covid-19: A systemic review and meta-analysis. 15/04/2020 J Med Virol. 2020. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmv.25889
Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, et al. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020 Apr 23. 2020;S0163-4453(20)30234-6. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.021
I Berlin, D Thomas, A Le Faou, J Cornuz. Smoking and Covid-19. Nicotine and Tobacco Control. 03/04/2020. https://academic.oup.com/ntr/article/doi/10.1093/ntr/ntaa059/5815378
Khot WY, Nadkar MY. The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - A Global Threat. J Assoc Physicians India. 2020 Mar;68(3):67-71. PMID: 32138488.
Brake SJ, Barnsley K, Lu W, McAlinden KD, Eapen MS, Sohal SS. Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). J Clin Med. 2020 Mar 20;9(3):E841. doi: 10.3390/jcm9030841.
Cai G, Bossé Y, Xiao F, Kheradmand F, Amos CI. Tobacco Smoking Increases the Lung Gene Expression of ACE2, the Receptor of SARS-CoV-2. American Journal of Respitatory and Critical Care Medicine. Published 24/04/2020. doi:10.1164/rccm.202003-0693LE
Cai H. Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Apr;8(4):e20. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30117-X. Epub 2020 Mar 11. Erratum in: Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Apr;8(4):e26.
Eisenberg S, Eisenberg MJ. Smoking Cessation During the COVID-19 Epidemic.Nicotine & Tobacco Research. ntaa075, 04/05/2020https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa075
Garufi G, Carbognin L, Orlandi A, Tortora G, Bria E. Smoking habit and hospitalization for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia: The unsolved paradox behind the evidence [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 23]. Eur J Intern Med. 2020;S0953-6205(20)30163-1. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2020.04.042
Klemperer EM, West JC, Peasley-Miklus C, Villanti AC. Change in tobacco and electronic cigarette use and motivation to quit in response to COVID-19. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 28/04/2020 ntaa072, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa072
Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 10/03/2020. M20-0504. doi: 10.7326/M20-0504.
Leung JM, Yang CX, Tam A, Shaipanich T, Hackett TL et al. ACE-2 Expression in the Small Airway Epithelia of Smokers and COPD Patients: Implications for COVID-19. Eur Respir J. 2020 Apr 8:2000688. doi:10.1183/13993003.00688-2020.
Leung JM, Yang CX, Sin DD. COVID-19 and Nicotine as a Mediator of ACE-2. European Respiratory Journal. 29/04/2020. DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01261-202
Leung JM, Sin DD. Smoking, ACE-2, and COVID-19: Ongoing Controversies. 19/05/2020.Eur Respir J. 2020;2001759. doi:10.1183/13993003.01759-2020
Lutchman D. Could the smoking gun in the fight against Covid-19 be the (rh) ACE2? 19/05/2020. Eur Respir J. 2001560. doi:10.1183/13993003.01560-2020
Majmundar A, Allem J, Boley Cruz T, Unger JB. Public Health Concerns and Unsubstantiated Claims at the Intersection of Vaping and COVID-19 Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 14/04/2020. ntaa064. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa064
McAlinden KD, Eapen MS, Lu W, Chia C, et al. COVID-19 and vaping: risk for increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection? 19/05/2020. Eur Respir J. 2001645. doi:10.1183/13993003.01645-2020
Misra DP, Agarwal V, Gasparyan AY, Zimba O. Rheumatologists' perspective on coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and potential therapeutic targets. Clin Rheumatol. 2020 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s10067-020-05073-9. Epub ahead of print.
Oakes JM, Fuchs RM, Gardner JD, Lazartigues E, Yue X. Nicotine and the renin-angiotensin system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2018;315(5):R895-R906. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00099.2018.
Patwardhan P. COVID-19: Risk of increase in smoking rates among England's 6 million smokers and relapse among England's 11 million ex-smokers. BJGP Open. 07/04/2020. doi: 10.3399/bjgpopen20X101067.
Smith JC, Sausville EL, Girish V, et al. Cigarette smoke exposure and inflammatory signaling increase the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in the respiratory tract 16/05/2020. Dev Cell. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2020.05.012
Tindle HA, Newhouse PA, Freiberg MS. Beyond Smoking Cessation: Investigating Medicinal Nicotine to Prevent and Treat COVID-19. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. [Letter] 08/05/2020 ntaa077, https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa077
Yue X, Basting TM, Flanagan TW, Xu J, Lobell TD,et al. Nicotine Downregulates the Compensatory Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor of the Renin–Angiotensin System. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Apr; 15(Suppl 2): S126–S127. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201706-464MG.
Farsalinos K, Barbouni A, Niaura R, Smoking, vaping and hospitalization for COVID-19. Qeios. 04/04/2020. V13. https://www.qeios.com/read/article/561 Preprint (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Simons D, Brown J, Shahab L, Persk O., Smoking and COVID-19: Rapid evidence review for the Royal College of Physicians, London (UK). Qeios. 01/04/2020. V1 https://www.qeios.com/read/article/555 Preprint (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, Hardwick HA et al. Features of 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol. MedRxiv. 28/04/2020 https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.23.20076042 (NOT PEER REVIEW)
Du R, Liang L, Yang C, Li M, Guo G et al.Patient Predisposition at Hospital Admission Indirectly Dictates Disease Severity, Clinical Course and Outcomes of COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients in Wuhan, China (February 19, 2020). The Lancet - Preprint Available http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3543584 (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Miyara M, et al., Low incidence of daily active tobacco smoking in patients with symptomatic COVID-19. Qeios. Preprint V3. https://www.qeios.com/read/article/574 (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Petrilli CM, Jones SA, Yang J ,Rajagopalan H, et al. Factors associated with hospitalization and critical illness among 4,103 patients with COVID-19 disease in New York City. Medrxiv. V1 posted 11/04/2020 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.20057794v1 preprint(NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Qi D, Yan X, Tang X, Peng J , Yu Q et al., Epidemiological and clinical features of 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease cases in Chongqing municipality, China: a retrospective, descriptive, multiple-center study. MedRxiv – Preprint. 03/03/2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.01.20029397v1 (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
The OpenSAFELY Collaborative, Williamson E, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran KJ, et al.OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19-related hospital death in the linked electronic health records of 17 million adult NHS patients.MedRxiv.07 May 2020 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.06.20092999v1 (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
CHANGEUX J, Amoura Z, Rey F, Miyara M. A nicotinic hypothesis for Covid-19 with preventive and therapeutic implications. Qeois. Version2. 22/04/2020 https://www.qeios.com/read/article/581 preprint (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Cai G. Bulk and Single-Cell Transcriptomics Identify Tobacco-Use Disparity in Lung Gene Expression of ACE2, the Receptor of 2019-nCov. Preprints 2020, 2020020051 doi. 10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3. (NOT PEER REVIEWED)
Wang J, Luo Q, Chen R, Chen T, Li J. Susceptibility analysis of COVID-19 in smokers based on ACE2. Prereprints 05/03/2020 doi: 10.20944/preprints202003.0078.v (NOT PEER REVIEW)
(This page is last updated on 25/05/2020)
Action on Smoking & Health (Scotland) (ASH Scotland) is a registered Scottish charity (SC 010412) and a company limited by guarantee(Scottish company no 141711). The registered office is 8 Frederick Street, Edinburgh EH2 2HB.
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