Taking action on smoking and health
Research period 31/03 - 30/04
Differences in flavourant levels and synthetic coolant use between USA, EU and Canadian Juul products
Published: 27/04/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Tested US/Canadian Juul e-liquids contained higher flavour concentrations than EU products, likely reflecting adaptation to user preferences. In EU, ‘Mint’ e-liquid, menthol is partially substituted with the synthetic coolant WS-3 that elicits a cooling effect like menthol but lacks its distinct ‘minty’ odour. The inhalational safety of WS-3 is unknown. The use of an emulsifier in US/Canadian ‘Mango’ Juul e-liquid may be necessary to keep the product homogeneous. Similar power specifications of devices between countries suggest that nicotine aerosol delivery is likely proportional to the e-liquid nicotine content.
Change in tobacco and electronic cigarette use and motivation to quit in response to COVID-19
Published: 28/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Outline: Regardless of the evidence on smoking and COVID-19, individual harm perceptions related to the virus may be inducing changes in tobacco use behavior. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk (crowd sourcing service), we conducted a cross sectional web-based survey. Changes in motivation to quit TCs and ECs due to COVID-19 were similar and positively correlated (rs=0.48, p<.001): motivation to quit decreased in 16.2% for TCsand 14.2% for ECs, remained the same in 48.2% for TCs and 48.2% for ECs, and increased in 35.6% for TCs and 37.6% for ECs. Further, 22.9% reported an attempt to quit TCs and 21.2% ECs in order to reduce risk of harm from COVID-19. Changes in use of TCs and ECs were similar and positively correlated (rs=0.68, p<.001): 28.3% (TC) and 24.9% (EC) decreased use, 41.4% (TC) and 46.0% (EC) remained the same, and 30.3% (TC) and 29.1% (EC) increased their use since learning of COVID-19
Timing- and dose-specific associations of prenatal smoke exposure with newborn DNA methylation
Published: 24/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Conclusions Our results suggest that CpGs associated with sustained maternal smoking are not associated with maternal smoking earlier in pregnancy or with paternal smoking. Some of these CpGs show dose-response relationships with sustained maternal smoking. The third trimester may comprise a critical period for associations of smoking with newborn DNA methylation, or sustained smoking may reflect higher cumulative doses. Alternatively, maternal smoking limited to early pregnancy and paternal smoking may be associated with DNA methylation at specific other CpGs not studied here.
Trends and Associations of Menthol Cigarette Smoking Among US Middle and High School Students—National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2018
Published: 29/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: In 2018, nearly half of current youth cigarette smokers smoked menthol cigarettes. While menthol cigarette smoking declined from 2011 to 2018 among all youth and among youth smokers, there was no change in menthol cigarette smoking among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and middle school cigarette smokers
Identification of volatile constituents released from IQOS heat-not-burn tobacco HeatSticks using a direct sampling method
Published: 21/04/2020, Tobacco Control
Results The temperature profile of the IQOS device revealed a non-combustive process employed in generating the tobacco aerosol. Real-time qualitative analysis revealed 62 compounds encompassing a broad spectrum of chemicals such as carbonyls, furans and phthalates, which are highly toxic.
Alterations in Vascular Function Associated With the Use of Combustible and Electronic Cigarettes
Published: 29/04/2020, Journal of the American Heart Association
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that e‐cigarette use is not associated with a more favorable vascular profile. Future longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the long‐term risks of sustained e‐cigarette use.
Tobacco Smoking Increases the Lung Gene Expression of ACE2, the Receptor of SARS-CoV-2
Published: 24/04/2020, American Journal of Respitatory and Critical Care Medicine
We identified upregulation of pulmonary ACE2 gene expression in eve smokers compared to non smokers in all datasets, irrespective of tissue subset or COPD status. Meta-analysis showed ever-smoking significantly and substantially increased pulmonary ACE2 expression by 25%. Similarly, smoking status defined by never, former and current smokers was also significantly associated with ACE2 pulmonary expression. The significant smoking effect on ACE2 pulmonary expression identified in this study may suggest an increased risk for viral binding and entry of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in lungs of smokers
Association Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Tobacco Store Density and Smoking Status in Pregnant Women in an Urban Area
Published: 26/04/2020, Preventative Medicine
Conclusion: [In the US]tobacco store density and neighborhood socioeconomic factors were associated with prevalence of maternal smoking while pregnant. These findings support the need to further assess and develop interventions to reduce the impact of tobacco store density on smoking behaviors and health risks in communities.
COVID-19 and Nicotine as a Mediator of ACE-2
Published: 29/04/2020, European Respiratory Journal
…While exposure to increasing concentrations of nicotine caused epithelial cells to increase ACE-2 levels, subsequent gene silencing of α7-nAChR appeared to significantly dampen this response. A secondary transcriptome sequencing analysis of our cohort reveals evidence in support of this hypothesis. We found that airway epithelial cell expression of CHRNA7, encoding α7-nAChR, was significantly correlated with the expression of ACE2.
Comprehensive Characterization of Mainstream Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke
Published: 28/04/2020, Nature Scientific Reports
Conclusion: This study demonstrates striking similarities between marijuana and tobacco smoke in terms of their physical and chemical properties.
Cannabis Use Among Dual Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Smokers: Relations With Pain and Hazardous Drinking
Published: 29/04/2020, Substance Use and Misuse
Conclusions/Importance: These results highlight several clinical correlates of cannabis use among adult dual users, and also suggest that pain may play an important role in hazardous drinking among these individuals.
Smoking Habit and Hospitalization for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related Pneumonia: The Unsolved Paradox Behind the Evidence
Published: 23/04/2020, European Journal of Internal Medicine
[Letter to the editor]
Impact of Electronic Alternatives to Tobacco Cigarettes on Indoor Air Particular Matter Levels
Published: 24/04/2020,International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
All studied EC/HNB caused lower indoor PM1 concentrations than conventional tobacco cigarettes. Nevertheless, they determined a worsening of indoor-PM1 concentration that ranged from very mild for JUUL®-depending on the pod used-to considerably severe for IQOS® and GLO®. The high variability of particle loadings was attributed both to the type of stick/pod used and to the different way of smoking of volunteers who smoked/vaped during the experiments. Moreover, during vaping IQOS® and GLO® indoor PM1 concentrations reach levels by far higher than outdoor concentrations.
‘Being politically active does not have to be difficult.’ A content analysis of tobacco industry-sponsored advocacy websites
Published: 20/04/2020, Tobacco Control
Tobacco industry-sponsored advocacy websites in the USA. Results We identified 18 themes; the most common of these were: tobacco taxes (13.9%), providing advocacy resources (10.6%) and pleas for action (10.3%). Related themes were aggregated into four broad categories: advocacy (36.7%), taxes (31.4%), legislation is excessive or unnecessary (21%), and support for weaker tobacco control policies (10.9%). Websites targeting consumers provided more resources to facilitate advocacy than websites targeting retailers.
Pregnant Smokers Receiving Opioid Agonist Therapy Have an Elevated Nicotine Metabolite Ratio: A Replication Study
Published: 18/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions Consistent with the findings of Oncken et al. (2019), we found that opioid agonist therapy (OAT) smokers smoked more and had higher nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) than non-OAT smokers. As higher NMR is associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking cessation, the effects on NMR of both pregnancy and OAT could contribute to a lower smoking cessation rate in pregnant smokers receiving chronic opioid therapy.
Changes in Use Patterns Over 1 Year Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and Electronic Cigarettes
Published: May 2020 issue, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: In this community sample, the majority of dual users transitioned to exclusive smoking. A higher percentage of dual users quit smoking than smokers, but attrition and baseline differences between the groups compromise strong conclusions. Sustained e-cigarette use was related to baseline e-cigarette dependence
Reducing Tobacco Related Disability in Chronic Smokers
Published: 20/04/2020, American Journal of Medicine.
Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking: An Initial Cross-Sectional Test of Mechanisms of Co-Occurrence
Published: 23/04/2020, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic covariates and non-OCS psychopathologies indicated that OCS level was positively associated i) negative reinforcement-smoking for relief; ii) sensorimotor-benefits of behaviors and sensations of the tobacco self-administration ritual; and iii) habitual-smoking without conscious control.
'They Only Smoke in the House When I'm Not In': Understanding the Limited Effectiveness of a Smoke-Free Homes Intervention [Scottish Study]
Published: 23/04/2020, Journal of Public Health
Results: The intervention increased women's capability to change home-smoking behaviour, through increasing awareness and salience of SHS risks to their children, and motivation to act. However, taking effective action was constrained by their limited social and environmental opportunities, including others' smoking in the home.
Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism
Published: 31/03/2020, Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Overview of Tobacco Use Transitions for Population Health
Published: 05/2020, Tobacco Control
Overview of the first three waves of the PATH study [US], a US nationally representative longitudinal tobacco study of about 46 000 persons aged 12+ years. These papers describe use patterns of different tobacco products and their correlates, and can serve as foundations for more in-depth papers that will help the research community better understand the population health impacts and drivers of different tobacco use patterns.
Antidepressants for Smoking Cessation
Published: 22/04/2020, Cochrane Database Systematic Review
Background: Whilst the pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of antidepressants are varied, there are common reasons why they might help people to stop smoking tobacco. Firstly, nicotine withdrawal may produce depressive symptoms and antidepressants may relieve these. Additionally, some antidepressants may have a specific effect on neural pathways or receptors that underlie nicotine addiction. Objectives: To assess the evidence for the efficacy, safety and tolerability of medications with antidepressant properties in assisting long-term tobacco smoking cessation in people who smoke cigarettes.
Cost-effectiveness of a Specialist Smoking Cessation Package Compared With Standard Smoking Cessation Services for People With Severe Mental Illness in England: A Trial-Based Economic Evaluation From the SCIMITAR+ Study
Published: 22/04/2020, Addiction
Conclusions: A bespoke smoking cessation package for people with severe mental illness is likely to be cost-effective over 12 months compared with usual care provided by the UK's NHS and personal social services.
The Impact of COPD and Smoking History on the Severity of Covid-19: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
Published: 15/04/2020, Journal of Medical Virology
Results: Overall 11 case-series, with a total of 2002 cases were included in the study. The pooled OR of COPD and the development of severe Covid-19 was 4.38 (95% CI: 2.34-8.20), while the OR of ongoing smoking was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.29-3.05). There was no publication bias as examined by the funnel plot and Egger's test (p=NS). The heterogeneity of included studies was moderate for both COPD and ongoing smoking history on the severity of Covid-19.
Do JUUL and e-cigarette flavours change risk perceptions of adolescents? Evidence from a national survey
Published: 16/04/2020,Tobacco Control
Results We found that risk perceptions for both JUULs and e-cigarettes differ significantly by flavour type. Youths perceive fruit flavours to be less likely to lead to lung cancer, have harmful second-hand vapour and be more addictive relative to tobacco flavours. Candy, menthol/mint and alcohol flavours show similar patterns of risk association, although the magnitude is slightly smaller than for fruit flavours.
Illicit tobacco trade is ‘booming’: UK newspaper coverage of data funded by transnational tobacco companies
Published: 16/04/2020, Tobacco Control
Context: Tobacco industry influences illicit trade messages through third parties. Findings Two-thirds of newspaper articles (63%, 99/157) mentioned a PMI consultant; 36% of which did not disclose this industry funding. Most articles mentioned counterfeit tobacco, illicit whites or both (72%, 113/157), while few (4%, 7/157) specifically mentioned tobacco industry illicit tobacco and none explained that the latter can include tobacco-company involvement. Freedom of Information documents revealed that the PMI consultant sought to build relationships with Trading Standards officers, conducted undercover test purchases (UTPs) in illicit tobacco ‘hotspots’ and may have promoted unrepresentative findings in the media. While the data set featured PMI data predominantly, other TTCs also engaged in third-party techniques to promulgate messages on illicit tobacco.
Do people know that cigarette filters are mainly composed of synthetic material? A representative survey of the German population (the DEBRA study)
Conclusions The majority of smokers in Germany does not know that cigarette filters are mainly composed of synthetic material. Our findings suggest a need for promoting awareness as well as knowledge of environmental health hazards of cigarette filters to the general population, and specifically to current smokers.
Cigarette use, e-cigarette use, and dual product use is higher among adults with serious psychological distress in the United States: 2014-2017
Published: 13/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions US adults with serious psychological distress (SPD) report higher levels of cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual product use than adults without SPD. Use of these products has not declined over the past several years in contrast to decreasing trends among adults without SPD.
Public health concerns and unsubstantiated claims at the intersection of vaping and COVID-19
Published: 14/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
[Letter] Discusses public health concerns and unsubstantiated claims at the intersection of vaping and COVID-19
A Report on Smoking Detection and Quitting Technologies
Published: 10/04/2020, International Journal or Environmental Research and Public Health
[Review] The aim of this report is to identify and appraise the most promising smoking detection and quitting technologies (e.g., smartphone apps, wearable devices) supporting smoking reduction or quitting programs.
Association Between Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Dysmenorrhea: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Published: 15/04/2020, PLoS One
Conclusion: The evidence from this meta-analysis indicated a significant association between cigarette smoking (both current and former smoking) and dysmenorrhea. The adverse effects of smoking provide further support for prevention of dysmenorrhea and emphasize the need to target women.
Electronic Cigarette Dependence and Demand Among Pod Mod Users as a Function of Smoking Status
Published: 16/04/2020, Psychological Addictive Behaviour
Overview: Dual users of pod mods and cigarettes displayed greater e-cigarette dependence compared to current pod mod users with no history of cigarette smoking (p = .033). Similarly, dual users showed the greatest levels of e-cigarette demand compared to both former smokers and those without a history of smoking. Dual users displayed the greatest e-cigarette dependence and demand. Future research should directly assess potential mechanisms for this effect and continue to monitor e-cigarette dependence as the tobacco landscape changes with the emergence of new e-cigarette products and innovations
Symptom Control Among Asthmatics With a Clinically Significant Smoking History: A Cross-Sectional Study in Finland
Published: 15/04/2020, BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Conclusions: Asthmatic patients with a clinically significant smoking history often do not have well controlled asthma. Poor asthma symptom control was associated with current smoking status, history of exacerbations and impaired lung function.
Effectiveness of Nicotine Gum in Preventing Lapses in the Face of Temptation to Smoke Among Non-Daily Smokers: A Secondary Analysis
Published: 14/04/2020, Addiction
Conclusions: When used in response to temptation to smoke, 2 mg nicotine gum can help prevent lapses among non-daily smokers.
If at first you don’t try . . .
Published: 08/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
An Editorial commentary on cessation
E-cigarette flavour enhancers: Flavoured pod attachments compatible with JUUL and other pod-based devices
Published: 09/04/2020, Tobacco Control
[Industry Watch] …Subsequently, after findings from a national study reported that mint flavour was the most popular JUUL flavour used among youth,3 JUUL also removed their mint flavour from the market in November 2019, leaving only menthol and tobacco flavoured pods. With millions of JUUL users—many of them youth—reporting that the variety of flavours offered was one of the most appealing aspects of the …
Are anti-smoking social norms associated with tobacco control mass media campaigns, tax and policy changes? Findings from an Australian serial cross-sectional population study of smokers
Published: 08/04/2020, Tobacco Control
Background: Anti-smoking social norms are associated with subsequent quitting behaviours… Conclusion: Smokers’ perceptions of family and friends’ disapproval of their smoking was more common after exposure to fear-evoking tobacco control campaigns and after large tobacco tax increases were announced and implemented.
Taxation reduces smoking but may not reduce smoking disparities in youth
Objective: This study examines the extent to which cigarette taxes affect smoking behaviour and disparities in smoking among adolescents by gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity.Conclusion: We conclude that higher taxes were associated with reduced smoking among adolescents, with little difference by gender, SES and racial/ethnicity groups. While effective at reducing adolescent smoking, taxes appear unlikely to reduce smoking disparities among youth.
The tobacco industry in the time of COVID-19: time to shut it down?
Published: 06/04/2020, Tobacco Control
COVID-19 outbreak impact in Spain: A role for tobacco smoking?
Published: April/2020, Tobacco Induced Diseases
[Letter to the Editor] As of the 26 March 2020… In Spain, as of 25 March 2020, most of those who have died (4089) were elderly, about 96% of deaths were in those over 60 years old, and 45% had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular disease (31%)5 . With 120859 deaths in 2018, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Spain (28.3%)6 . Sex-disaggregated data for CVD in Spain show differences in mortality between men (46.3%) and women (53.7%)6 . Surprisingly, although men (51%) and women (49%) are getting infected by COVID-19 at similar rates, men have been dying from COVID-19 at a significantly higher rate (4.4%) than women (2.5%), and the sex differences regarding vulnerability in those with COVID-19 and preexisting CVD seem to be again reflected in men (35%) and women (26%)5 . Emerging evidence suggests that these discrepancies could potentially be due to gendered differences such as patterns and prevalence of smoking.
Transitions From and to Roll-Your-Own Tobacco, Perceptions and Health Beliefs Among Smokers: Findings From the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
Published: 10/04/2020, European Journal of Public Health
Results: Approximately 7.4% of exclusive FM smokers transitioned to RYO and 29.5% of exclusive RYO smokers transitioned to FM cigarettes from 2016 to 2018. RYO use in 2018 was more frequent among smokers of low education and income, but none of these factors were associated with transitions. Most RYO smokers perceived RYO as cheaper than FM and 21.7% of them considered RYO to be less harmful than FM. Knowledge of the health effects of smoking was not associated with type of product smoked.
Impact of Smoking on Human Natural Killer Cell Activity: A Large Cohort Study
Published: 30/03/2020, Journal of Cancer Prevention
Conclusions: Among current smokers, NK cell activity decreased with increase in the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Additionally, it decreased linearly with increasing quartiles of cotinine levels. NK cell activity was lower in current smokers. It also decreased with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked, and it was negatively correlated with cotinine levels among current smokers. Our findings indicate a clear relationship between smoking and decreased NK cell activity.
COVID-19 and smoking
Published: 03/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Current research overview of Covid-19 and smoking (open access)
The Role of the School Nurse in Creating a Vape-Free School
Published: 02/04/2020, NASN School Nurse
Abstract: E-cigarettes are neither legal for youth nor considered safe for use by youth. Schools lack adequate resources and capacity to address e-cigarette use, relying mostly on punitive sanctions for what is essentially a health issue. School nurses can help their districts and schools by navigating appropriate consequences for vaping, providing accurate information and education, providing cessation resources, advocating for student support, and informing stakeholders on population health strategies to prevent initiation and reduce youth e-cigarette use.
Acute Effects of E-Cigarette Vaping on Pulmonary Function and Airway Inflammation in Healthy Individuals and in Patients With Asthma
Published: 02/04/2020, Respirology
Conclusion: E-cigarette vaping resulted in acute alteration of both pulmonary function and airway inflammation in stable moderate asthmatic patients.
Cardiovascular Benefits of Switching From Tobacco to Electronic Cigarettes
Published: 07/04/2020, Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Comments on the Vesuvius Study (George et al., (2019) Cardiovascular Effects of Switching From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes, JACC. 74(25))
Smoking Cessation and Improvement in Mental Health Outcomes: Do People Who Quit Smoking by Switching to Electronic Cigarettes Experience Improvement in Mental Health?
Published: 03/04/2020, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
Results: Of 35,683 respondents with complete data, 3.1% were e-cigarette users. 12.5% of current smokers and 14.7% of e-cigarette users had elevated depressive symptoms compared to only 5.8% among former smokers. Among former smokers using e-cigarettes, 16.1% had elevated depressive symptoms compared to 5.5% among former smokers who were not e-cigarette users. The ORs of elevated depressive symptoms were 2.9 times higher in current smokers (95% CI, 2.5 to 3.4) and 1.5 times higher for former smokers (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.7) compared to never smokers. However, the OR of elevated depressive symptoms for former smokers compared to never smokers differed by their e-cigarette use status: OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 2.5 to 7.1 if they were using e-cigarettes and OR = 1.4, 95% CI,1.2 to 1.7 if they were not using e-cigarettes
E-cigarettes and Other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)
Published: 30/03/2020, Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Electronic nicotine delivery systems and vaping devices are now the most commonly used forms of tobacco consumed by youth and young adults. A variety of chemicals and toxicants released during inhalation have harmful systemic effects and effects on the lung. The known and potential health consequences are particularly alarming. There is concern that use of these devices will create a new generation of life-long smokers with nicotine and polysubstance addiction.
Are e-cigarettes reviving the popularity of conventional smoking among Taiwanese male adolescents? A time-trend population-based analysis for 2004-2017
Published: 31/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions The increased popularity of e-cigarettes since 2014 is associated with a greater decline in youth smoking, compared with previous years. On the contrary, e-cigarette use has remained very low among Taiwanese male adults and no additional impact on the conventional smoking trend is found.
Predictors of smoking cessation attempts and success following motivation-phase interventions among people initially unwilling to quit smoking
Published: 01/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
This is a secondary analysis of a randomized factorial trial of 6 weeks of motivation-phase interventions among primary care patients who were initially unwilling to quit but were willing to reduce their smoking. Changes in the following variables predicted initiating a Quit Attempt: greater baseline time to first cigarette (OR=1.60), increases in time to first cigarette (OR=1.27) and increases in quitting self-efficacy (OR=1.14). Increased motivation to quit predicted conversion of a QA into quitting success at 26 weeks (OR=1.36).
In utero exposures to electronic-cigarette aerosols impair the Wnt signaling during mouse lung development
Published: 31/03/2020, American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Conclusions: Thus, our data indicate that maternal vaping impairs pregnancy outcomes, alters fetal lung structure, and dysregulates the Wnt signaling. This study provides experimental evidence for future regulations of e-cig products for pregnant women and developmentally vulnerable population
Nicotine Effects, Body Weight Concerns and Smoking: A Literature Review
Published: 31/03/2020, Current Pharmaceutical Design
The present review contextualizes the role of nicotine and smoking sensory stimulation on maintaining smoking, describe nicotine's effects on feeding behavior and body weight, and explore the impact of smoking outcome expectancies, including the belief that nicotine suppresses appetite and body weight on the decision to smoke or vape (use of e-cigarettes).
World No Tobacco Day 2020
Published: 01/04/2020, American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
To support the observance of World No Tobacco Day WNTD, three Editorials may be found in the May issue 37 of the American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, to
coincide with WNTD on 31st 38 May 2020.
Heated Tobacco Products Have Reached Younger or More Affluent People in Japan
Published: 28/03/2020, Journal of Epidemiology
Conclusions: Younger or more affluent people tended to use HTPs, although smoking rates among these populations were generally lower. New tobacco control efforts are required.
Tobacco Control in China and the Road to Healthy China 2030
Published: 01/04/2020, International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Healthy China 2030 aims to reduce the adult smoking rate from 27.7% in 2015 to 20% by 2030. Achieving this goal requires a review of the tobacco control measures introduced in China to date, the gaps that remain and the opportunities ahead…. Effective MPOWER (six measures set by the WHO) measures, which depend upon the removal of tobacco industry interference from policymaking, are key to achieving the goal set by Healthy China 2030.
Impact of Smoking on Metabolic Changes and Effectiveness of Drugs Used for Lung Cancer
Published: March 2020, Central European Journal of Public Health
This article reviews the published studies dealing with the influence of cigarette smoking on metabolic changes and effectiveness of drugs used in the systemic chemotherapy of the lung cancer. Primarily, we addressed potential differences in drug effects on smokers and non-smokers. The increased clearance of erlotinib and irinotecan may have impact on effectiveness of the lung cancer therapy. The effects of taxanes and gemcitabine are more complex.
Thirdhand Smoke: Genotoxicity and Carcinogenic Potential
Published: March 2020, Clinical Disease and Translational Medicine
In this perspective, we mainly summarize all published studies on the genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential of Thirdhand Smoke THS exposure. These studies begin to fill the knowledge gap in our understanding of cancer risk of THS.
Action on Smoking & Health (Scotland) (ASH Scotland) is a registered Scottish charity (SC 010412) and a company limited by guarantee(Scottish company no 141711). The registered office is 8 Frederick Street, Edinburgh EH2 2HB.
ASH Scotland acknowledges with thanks the support of the British Heart Foundation and the Scottish Government in developing our website.