Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 31/07 - 27/08
Moderators of changes in smoking, drinking and quitting behaviour associated with the first COVID-19 lockdown in England
Published: 25/08/2021, Addiction
Conclusions: In England, the first COVID-19 lockdown was associated with increased smoking prevalence among younger adults and increased high-risk drinking prevalence among all adults. Smoking cessation activity also increased: more younger smokers made quit attempts during lockdown and more smokers quit successfully.
Cigarette smoking trajectories in adolescent smokers: Does the time axis metric matter?
Published: 25/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications: This study uses simulated and real data to show that trajectory analyses of cigarette smoking that use calendar time (e.g., age) versus time since onset as the time axis metric tell a different story. Trajectory analyses using the time since onset metric depict the natural course of smoking in incident smokers. Those using calendar time offer a snapshot of smoking across age during a given time period. Choosing the right time metric should be balanced against research intent.
Cigarette smoking and risk of infection-related mortality: A cohort study
Conclusion: Current smoking status, intensity and pack-years were associated with an increased risk of infection-related death, with the highest risk of infection-related mortality found consistently in individuals with ≥20 pack-years.
The early-life exposome and epigenetic age acceleration in children
Published: 25/08/2021, Environment International
Conclusion: Pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood exposure to indoor particulate matter may accelerate epigenetic aging from an early age.
Tobacco Control Leaders Call for a Balanced Assessment of the Risks and Benefits of Nicotine Vaping
Published: 26/08/2021, American Journal of Public Health
Excerpt: [Editorial] The role of e-cigarettes, or nicotine vaping products, in tobacco control has been controversial from the outset. Early divisions among public health experts led to polarized coverage in the media, confused messages to the public, and inconsistent policymaking between jurisdictions. For many authorities in the United States, the potential health harms of e-cigarettes and youth-vaping concerns were overriding considerations. For others (most notably in the United Kingdom), those risks have been balanced more explicitly against the potential benefits for smokers of easy access to nicotine vaping products. As more and better evidence becomes available and continues to accrue, some consensus should be possible on the individual elements of this complex policy question.
Breastfeeding with Smoking Cessation Products
Published: 25/08/2021, Breastfeeding Medicine
Outline: This column reviews the use of smoking cessation medication products during breastfeeding
Effect of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis co-use on gray matter volume in heavy drinkers
Published: 26/08/2021, Psychology of Addictive Behaviours
Conclusion: The additive effect of tobacco co-use on gray matter volumes in heavy drinkers was limited and localized. The effect of tri-use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis may have interacted, such that overlapping cannabis and tobacco use masked volume differences present in separate co-using groups.
Trajectories of motivation and self-efficacy during a smoking quit attempt: An ecological momentary assessment study
Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to incorporate dynamic measures of motivation in smoking research. Furthermore, the results underscore the value of utilizing ecological momentary assessment methods and trajectory parameters to gain a more nuanced understanding of the dynamic effects that key mechanisms have on smoking during a quit attempt.
Association between e-cigarette use and asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 25/08/2021, Journal of Asthma
Conclusion: Our review found that e-cigarette use and ever e-cigarette use are correlated with asthma. However, heterogeneity and inconsistencies between covariates limited the interpretation of the results. This warrants further studies to investigate any potential causal association between e-cigarette use and asthma.
Ongoing Difficulty of Characterizing Nicotine Product Risks
Published: 24/08/2021, JAMA Network Open
Invited Commentary: … As the tobacco landscape continues to evolve, characterizing exposure to—and relative risk from—nicotine products, particularly e-cigarettes, has become increasingly difficult and nuanced…
Trends in Nicotine Product Use Among US Adolescents, 1999-2020
Conclusions and relevance: This study suggests that ‘Nicotine Product Days’ (NPDs) represent an improvement, albeit an imperfect one, compared with any 30-day tobacco product use by incorporating the frequency of use of various products. By distinguishing products, NPDs permit consideration of the health consequences associated with different mixes of products over time. Health risks of adolescent nicotine product use could have decreased during vaping's popularity if assessment of the long-term risks associated with vaping compared with those of smoking is low. There is a need to closely monitor youth nicotine and tobacco product use patterns.
Smoking cessation, but not reduction, reduces cardiovascular disease incidence
Published: 25/08/2021, European Hearth Journal
Conclusions: Smoking cessation, but not reduction, was associated with reduced CVD risk. Our study emphasizes the importance of sustained quitting in terms of CVD risk reduction.
Exploring the gateway hypothesis of e-cigarettes and tobacco: a prospective replication study among adolescents in the Netherlands and Flanders
Published: 19/08/2021, Tobacco Control
Findings: Consistent with prior findings, baseline e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of tobacco smoking at 6-month (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.37) and 12-month (OR=5.63; 95% CI 3.04 to 10.42) follow-ups. More frequent use of e-cigarettes at baseline was associated with more frequent smoking at follow-ups. Baseline tobacco smoking was associated with subsequent e-cigarette use (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.58 to 6.06 at both follow-ups).
Electronic nicotine delivery systems: the need for continued regulatory innovation
Published: 13/08/2021, Tobacco Control
Abstract: [editorial] In this article, we review recent US Food and Drug Administration regulatory approaches to tobacco products, including attempts to regulate nicotine concentration and address youth use. We examine recent drives to promote a harm reduction approach in other product markets […]. We describe the potential of a harm reduction framework for ENDS regulation based on tiered nicotine exposure standards coupled with risk-based product distribution controls that would enable ENDS products to meet the ‘Appropriate for the Protection of the Public Health’ standard required for tobacco product market entry.
Instigators of COVID-19 in Immune Cells are Increased in Tobacco Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Vapers Compared to Non-smokers
Published: 19/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: The finding that key instigators of COVID-19 infection are lower in ECIG-vapers compared to TCIG-smokers is intriguing and warrants additional investigation to determine if switching to ECIGs is an effective harm reduction strategy. However, the trend towards increased proteases in ECIG-vapers remains concerning.
The Comparative Effectiveness of Varenicline and Nicotine Patches for Smoking Abstinence During Pregnancy: Evidence From a Population-based Cohort Study
Published: 16/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Varenicline was almost three times more effective than nicotine patches in assisting pregnant women to quit smoking. Further studies are needed to corroborate our results. Together with data on the safety of varenicline during pregnancy, evidence regarding the relative benefit of varenicline and NRT during pregnancy important for informing clinical decisions for pregnant smokers.
Secondhand smoke exposure in European countries with different smoke-free legislation. Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
Published: 13/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results: A significant decrease in self-reported SHS exposure was observed in workplaces, from 19.1% in 2016 to 14.0% in 2018 (-5.1%; 95% CI: -8.0%;-2.2%). Self-reported smoking did not change significantly inside bars (22.7% in W2), restaurants (13.2% in W2) and discos/nightclubs (34.0% in W2). SHS exposure in public places was significantly less likely (OR=0.35; 95% CI: 0.26-0.47) in the countries with total bans as compared to those countries with partial bans.
“He who pays the piper calls the tune”: Researcher experiences of funder suppression of health behaviour intervention trial findings
Published: 18/08/2021, PLos One
Findings: We received responses from 104 authors (50%) of 208 eligible trials, from North America (34%), Europe (33%), Oceania (17%), and other countries (16%). Eighteen percent reported at least one of the seven suppression events relating to the trial in question. The most commonly reported suppression event was funder(s) expressing reluctance to publish because they considered the results ‘unfavourable’ (9% reported). We found no strong associations with the subject of research, funding source, democracy, region, or year of publication.
Passive Smoking Throughout the Life Course and the Risk of Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis in Adulthood Among Women
Published: 18/08/2021, Arthritis and Rheumatology
Conclusion: We found a potential direct influence of childhood parental smoking on adult-onset incident seropositive RA even after controlling for adult personal smoking.
An ongoing saga of nicotine complexity and dopamine heterogeneity: Nicotine activation and inhibition mediating reward and anxiety
Published: 18/08/2021, Neuron
Abstract: In this issue of Neuron, Nguyen and colleagues (Nguyen et al., 2021) investigate nicotine's effects on diverse midbrain dopamine neurons. Their findings provide new understanding of the functional role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons and reveal topographically distinct, pathway-specific, and opposite dopaminergic responses to nicotine that likely mediate reward and anxiety, respectively.
COVID-19, smoking, and cancer: a dangerous liaison
Published: 16/08/2021, Lancet
Editorial: An Article published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine on Aug 16, 2021, makes shocking reading. The paper reports the latest Global Burden of Disease (GBD) incidence and mortality data from 1990 to 2019 for tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancers. […] Unsurprisingly, smoking was ranked as the number 1 cause in all GBD regions, both overall and in men, and accounted for 64·2% of all deaths from these respiratory cancers. [...] Furthermore, lung cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection share similarities in symptoms, such as persistent cough, low oxygen levels, and breathlessness—factors that might have further delayed these cancer diagnoses. A late diagnosis for lung cancer is also associated with a poor prognosis.
Global, regional, and national burden of respiratory tract cancers and associated risk factors from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Published: 16/08/2021, Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Findings: […] Smoking contributed to an estimated 64·2% (61·9–66·4) of all deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and 63·4% (56·3–69·3) of all deaths from larynx cancer in 2019. For males and for both sexes combined, smoking was the leading specific risk factor for age-standardised deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer per 100 000 in all SDI quintiles and GBD regions in 2019.
The relationship between smoking cigarettes and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study with non-single residents of Seoul under 40 years old
Published: 19/08/2021, PLos One
Conclusions: In comparison with non-single, young and generally healthy city dwellers, the risk of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, and in particular, it was confirmed that the risk of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterolemia was higher. Smoking cessation is necessary, even for the young, because smoking may cause changes in blood lipids even if the smoking duration is short.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment for Smoking Cessation: An Introduction for Primary Care Clinicians
Published: 15/08/2021, American Journal of Medicine
Abstract: As an adjunctive treatment, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently cleared transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, as an aid for smoking cessation in adults. With growing scientific evidence and increasing regulatory approval of TMS for smoking cessation, this novel treatment option is now available for patients who want to quit smoking but have been unsuccessful with pharmacologic approaches.
Tobacco industry pricing strategies in response to excise tax policies: a systematic review
Published: 09/08/2021, Tobacco Control
Conclusions: While there is limited evidence to fully ascertain industry responses to tax increases, this review suggests that the TI widely uses a multitude of sophisticated pricing strategies across different settings around the world with the intention of undermining tax policies, thereby increasing tobacco consumption and maximising their profits. There is a need for further research in this area especially in LMICs so that effective policy responses can be developed.
Ignoring our elders: tobacco control’s forgotten health equity issue
Published: 12/08/2021, Tobacco Control
Editorial: …But there has been almost no examination of this paradigm [focussing on prevention in young people and quitting in 20’s, 30’s and 40’s) and its effects from a health equity perspective.
Return on investment of Canadian tobacco control policies implemented between 2001 and 2016
Published: 10/08/2021, Tobacco Control
Conclusions: This analysis has found that the costs to implement the Canadian tobacco policies between 2001 and 2016 were far outweighed by the monetised value associated with the benefits of these policies, making a powerful case for the investment in tobacco control policies.
Use of electronic cigarettes as a predictor of cannabis experimentation: A longitudinal study among German youth
Published: 12/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusion: E-cigarette use is associated with a subsequent initiation of cannabis use. This association seems to be stronger for youth who have a lower risk for substance use in general. Future studies need to investigate whether this is only true for experimental or also more frequent cannabis use.
Disposable E-Cigarette Use Prevalence, Correlates, and Associations with Previous Tobacco Product Use in Young Adults
Published: 11/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Products
Conclusions: Young adult disposable e-cigarette use was of appreciable prevalence, including among tobacco product never users and former smokers. Regulation of disposable e-cigarettes, including ice-flavored products, might benefit young adult health.
Correlates of Tobacco and Nicotine Use among Transgender and Gender Diverse People: A Systematic Review Guided by the Minority Stress Model
Published: 10/08/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Abstract excerpt: Overall, the literature demonstrated external minority stressors were mostly researched (and supported) correlates of tobacco and nicotine use among transgender and gender diverse people.
Substance Use and Mental Health Outcomes from a Text Messaging-Based Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Young People Experiencing Homelessness
Conclusions: In addition to helping reduce cigarette smoking, we found that a text-messaging intervention (TMI) for youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) was helpful in improving secondary outcomes, suggesting the promise of the TMI on benefiting YEH even beyond targeted smoking behaviour.
Age and smoking predict antibody titres at 3 months after the second dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine
Published: 07/08/2021, MedRxiv
Conclusion: The most important factors associated with low Ab titres were age and smoking habit. In particular, current smoking status caused lower Ab titres, and smoking cessation before vaccination may improve the individual efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.
Shared Genetic Etiology between Cortical Brain Morphology and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Cannabis Use
Published: 11/08/2021, Cerebral Cortex
Results: substance use behaviours (SUB) polygenic risk score were associated with brain structure variation in adolescent behavior and cognitive development. Our findings highlight a shared genetic etiology between cortical brain morphology and SUB and suggest that genetic variants associated with SUB may be causally related to brain structure differences.
US Smoking Trends Among Young Adults with Serious Psychological Distress: 1997-2018
Published: 10/08/2021, Journal of internal general medicine.
Conclusion: While 28.7% (95%CI: 23.3, 34.1) of young adults with SPD smoked in 2017–2018, this prevalence would have been 37.4% if only initiation rates had changed post-2010, versus 37.7% if only cessation rates had changed
Does smoking affect your skin?
Published: 25/01/2021, Advances in Dermatology and Allergology
Abstract: [Review] Smoking has a negative influence on human beings. Carcinogens detected in smoke can increase the risk of developing chronic disorders, cancer and premature death. Nicotine can also affect dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, chronic dermatoses, alopecia, lupus erythematosus, polymorphous light eruption, skin cancer and tobacco-associated oral lesions. Advanced education at a doctor's surgery in various medical occupations can change the bad habits and protect people from the consequences.
Reactions to sales restrictions on flavored vape products or all vape products among young adults in the US
Published: 31/07/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications: Young adult e-cigarette users indicate low support for e-cigarette sales restrictions (both for flavored products and complete restrictions). Moreover, if vape product sales were restricted to tobacco flavors, 39.1% of users reported being likely to continue using e-cigarettes but 33.2% were likely to switch to cigarettes. If vape product sales were entirely restricted, e-cigarette users were equally likely to switch to cigarettes versus not (~40%). Those most likely to report positive impact of such policies being implemented were less frequent users, never-smokers, and those with greater e-cigarette-related health concerns. This research should be considered in future tobacco control initiatives.
Evolving chemical landscape of e-cigarettes, 2021
Published: 30/07/2021, Tobacco Control
Commentary: …Despite more than a decade of research on the health effects of e-cigarettes, there is still much that is unknown about how the chemicals in e-cigarettes may impact human health. One of the major challenges in e-cigarette research is keeping up with the wide variety of devices and e-liquid formulations available on the market….
Electronic Cigarette Cessation among Adolescents and Young Adults
Published: 04/08/2021, Substance Use and Misuse
Results: More than half (n = 110; 51.9%) of the participants reported at least one past serious e-cigarette quit attempt. Among those, the average number of past quit attempts was 2.9 (SD = 3.9). Of the 157 (74.1%) participants who indicated they were interested in quitting e-cigarettes, 78 (49.7%) endorsed health risks as their primary reason for wanting to quit e-cigarettes. The most frequently endorsed intervention methods to aid in e-cigarette cessation were those delivered via digital methods, such as smartphone apps.
The Effect of Cigarette Use and Dual-Use on Depression and Sleep Quality
Published: 04/08/2021, Substance use and misuse
Conclusions: These results imply that dual-use can have a negative impact on mental health. This study supports previous studies on the harmfulness of dual-use and suggests that more studies related to the dual-use of cigarettes should be conducted in the future.
Association Between Smoking Cannabis and Quitting Cigarettes in a Large American Cancer Society Cohort
Published: 04/08/2021, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention
Conclusions: Results do not support the hypothesis that cannabis smoking inhibits quitting cigarette smoking among adults.
*Note that this is an US based study where generally cannabis is smoked without tobacco, in contrast to the UK.
Trends in sexual orientation disparities in cigarette smoking: Intersections between race/ethnicity and sex
Published: 02/08/2021, Preventative Medicine
Conclusion: Disparities in cigarette smoking by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation suggest that aggregating these groups mask important differences and limit efforts to target those most at risk.
Questioning the sex-specific differences in the association of smoking on the survival rate of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Published: 05/08/2021, PLoS One
Conclusion: A high smoking prevalence was detected in our hospitalized COVID-19 cohort combined with worse prognosis and higher mortality rate in smoking patients. Our study was the first to highlight potential sex-specific consequences for smoking on COVID-19 outcomes that might further explain the higher vulnerability to death from this disease among men.
Efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation interventions in reducing smoking frequency in patients with nicotine dependence: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Published: 04/08/2021, Addiction
Conclusion: Prefrontal non-invasive brain stimulation interventions appear to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked with good acceptability.
Tobacco Use and the Kidney: A Review of Public Policies and Studies on Kidney Disease Progression
Published: 04/08/2021, Contribution to Nephrology
Prevention and Treatment: The results showing smoking cessation slows the progression of kidney disease in smokers should drive our effort to help our patients quit smoking. Smoking prevention at the population level, and particularly in those at risk of CKD or with established CKD should be part of health policies and regulations all around the world.
Examining the sources of evidence in e-cigarette policy recommendations: A citation network analysis of international public health recommendations
Published: 04/08/2021, PLos One
Conclusion: Public health bodies across different jurisdictions drew upon similar sources of evidence, despite articulating different policy approaches to e-cigarettes. The evidence drawn upon, including the most influential evidence, contained substantial conflicts of interest (including relationships with e-cigarette and tobacco industries). Processes to explicitly manage conflicts of interest arising from the underlying evidence base may be required when developing public health recommendations.
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