Taking action on smoking and health
Published: 14/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Flavours play a major role in vaping initiation for current smokers, former smokers and vaping-susceptible non-smokers, and remain important to those who continue vaping. Our findings highlight the need for regulation that allows some flavour diversity without the extravagant marketing currently used to promote vaping and e-liquids.
Published: 13/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions: Results support the idea of product supplementation rather than replacement among this convenience sample of dual users. For smokers whose primary motivation for smokeless tobacco use involves situations where they would otherwise be tobacco free, the potential benefits of clean indoor air laws may be diminished
Published: 12/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Background: Cigarette pack inserts are small cards inside the pack that provide information on the benefits of quitting and advice on how to quit. Introduced in 2000, the original Canadian inserts featured textual messages about the benefits of quitting. Research found that Canadian smokers who read the inserts at least a few times reported greater confidence in their ability to quit, more quit attempts and more quit attempts lasting 30 days or longer. Pack inserts are inexpensive, with costs borne by the tobacco industry, and the positive and supportive information complements the motivating. Building on Australia’s successful comprehensive approach….
Published: 13/02/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: E-cigarettes continue to be a newsworthy topic, with coverage both reflecting numerous changes and events over time, and providing repeated opportunities for informing the public and policymakers about these novel products. Future research should continue to track how discourse changes over time and assess its potential influence on e-cigarette perceptions and policy changes.
Published: March 2020, American Journal of Health and Behaviour
Conclusions: Method of menthol delivery did not impact cessation, nicotine dependence, and quit attempts.
Published: 01/03/2020, American Journal of Health Behaviour
Conclusions: Tobacco education and public health messages should encourage youth to evaluate the tobacco industry messages they receive, as counterarguing is associated with higher risk perceptions. Furthermore, fostering increased awareness of the risks associated with e-cigarette use by youth can reduce intentions to use them.
Published: 08/02/2020, Journal of Environmental Sciences
We report here determination of arsenic species in e-liquids and aerosols generated from vaping the e-liquid. Aerosols condensed from vaping the e-liquids were analyzed and compared for arsenic species. Six arsenic species were detected
Published: March 2020, Clinics in Chest Medicine
In this review, the authors describe the current state of tobacco dependence treatment focusing on new paradigms and approaches and their particular relevance for persons at risk or on treatment for lung cancer.
Published: 05/02/2020, Drug Alcohol Dependence
Conclusions: ECIG dependence has similarities to cigarette smoking dependence, but dependence indicators appear to be unique to ECIG use. Health professionals and the public should be aware of ECIG dependence risk and indicators.
Published: 08/02/2020, Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
…This commentary summarises the current evidence surrounding the safety and efficacy of NVPs, the Australian regulatory landscape, and provides a guide for pharmacy staff to use in discussions with customers regarding NVPs. Evidence strongly points to NVPs being considerably less harmful than smoking tobacco cigarettes and that they can be effective for smoking cessation.
Published: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Conclusion Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and should be targeted for cessation programmes.
Compared with individuals who had never smoked, current smokers showed a higher risk of dementia. Among ex-smokers, the risk for those who had stopped smoking for ≤ 2 years was still high, however, quitting smoking for 3 years or longer mitigated the increased risk incurred by smokers. Our study suggests that the risk of incident dementia among ex-smokers becomes the same level as that of never smokers if they maintain abstinence from smoking for at least 3 years.
Published: 12/02/2020, American Journal of Preventative Medicine
Conclusions: There was a positive association between secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents from low- and middle-income countries. Further research should investigate causality and assess whether prevention of exposure to secondhand smoke can have a positive effect on the mental well-being of adolescents.
Published: 10/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Among smokers, JUUL and IQOS delivered less nicotine than cigarettes. Also, in this sample, IQOS and OB reduced abstinence symptoms more effectively than JUUL. Additional work with experienced JUUL and IQOS users is needed, as their nicotine delivery profiles and subjective experiences may differ.
Conclusions Information from manufacturers can be used to identify frequently used and category-specific flavourings. Qualitative and quantitative ingredient information can be used to successfully predict an e-liquid’s flavour category, serving as an example for regulators that have similar datasets available.
Conclusion Tobacco companies are continuing to market tobacco and influence sales through provision of incentives and benefits to retailers. Laws that ban the supply of benefits to consumers should be extended to also prohibit the provision of benefits to tobacco retailers.
Published: 11/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions In the absence of trusted information, participants used sensory heuristics to rationalise their ENDS practices. Policy-makers face the challenge of correcting misperceptions about SHA without deterring full transition from smoking to ENDS use. They could consider including vaping in current smoke-free area policies; this measure would signal that SHA is not harmless, and could protect clean-air settings and reduce potential normalisation of vaping among non-smokers.
Conclusions Results support the idea of product supplementation rather than replacement among this convenience sample of dual users. For smokers whose primary motivation for smokeless tobacco use involves situations where they would otherwise be tobacco free, the potential benefits of clean indoor air laws may be diminished.
Conclusions: Poly-substance use is highly prevalent among adolescents who use e-cigarettes. Therefore, e-cigarette screening should include assessment of other substances, especially alcohol. Early and comprehensive prevention efforts to reduce e-cigarette and other substance use could have a substantial beneficial impact on population health over time.
Published: 12/02/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Awareness and use of Heated Tobacco Products (HTP) [Heat-Not-Burn] among young adults were associated with greater use of tobacco products and other substances and, among current smokers, with greater cigarette dependence (but not cessation-related factors). As these products become increasingly available in the United States, additional surveillance and monitoring activities are needed to better understand use patterns, consequences, and reasons for using HTPs
Results: In fully-adjusted models, compared to never smokers, residents of areas with a higher density of tobacco retail were more likely to 1) be characterized as established smokers, 2) have experienced repeated changes in smoking status (being “switchers”) during the 4-year study period, and 3) be former smokers.
Published: 29/01/2020, Nature
…Thus, tobacco smoking increases mutational burden, cell-to-cell heterogeneity and driver mutations, but quitting promotes replenishment of the bronchial epithelium from mitotically quiescent cells that have avoided tobacco mutagenesis.
Published: 05/02/2020, JAMA network Open
Conclusions and relevance: This study found that prevalence of current and frequent e-cigarette use among adolescents was higher when inclusive of JUUL use, and JUUL was by far the most common e-cigarette brand used, providing support for inclusion of brand-specific questions when assessing e-cigarette use. The results also identify characteristics of adolescents who may be more likely to use e-cigarettes
Published: 10/02/2020, Revista Brasileira de enfermagem
Final considerations: The results showed that the users expressed their desire for cessation of tobacco use and that to achieve this goal, family and group support, professional help and changing habits are key factors for this process.
Published: 12/02/2020, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Conclusions: The introduction of organisational procedures that include routine cessation care should be of high priority in CSOs to help reduce smoking rates among clients. Staff may also benefit from receiving training in the provision of cessation support and education about the importance and feasibility of addressing smoking concurrently with other issues.
Published: 01/02/2020, American Journal of Ethics
Abstract: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have been widely referred to as "safer," "healthier," and more "effective" smoking cessation aids, but little evidence supports such claims. New concerns about pulmonary injuries associated with ENDS suggest reasons for concern about these products' health risks and potential for nicotine addiction. Nevertheless, multinational tobacco companies heavily market ENDS to retain customers with nicotine addiction, and global progress against tobacco use might slow as a result. The tobacco industry has managed to divide the tobacco control community by offering hope of harm reduction without actual evidence of ENDS' effectiveness or long-term safety. Low- and middle-income countries need this evidence to assess ENDS' value in mitigating tobacco use.
Published: 04/20/2020, Tobacco Inducible Diseases
Results: The probability of e-cigarette use gradually increased over the age of 15 years and then decreased by the age of 17 years for females and after the age of 18 years for males. Significant gender differences were observed between the ages of 17 and 19.5 years. Peer e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of current e-cigarette use across all ages for females and after the age of 16 years for males. Exposure to e-cigarette commercials increased current use significantly for males between the ages of 16 and 18 years. Household use increased the odds of current use of e-cigarettes between the ages of 17 and 19 years for males and under 16.5 and over 18 years for females.
Published: 11/02/2020, Pediactrics
Published: 01/02/2020, American Journal of Ethics
Abstract…Ongoing challenges include weak implementation and enforcement of some aspects of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and a lack of consensus among health professionals on how to address the tobacco industry's health claims related to e-cigarettes and other novel tobacco products. We argue that, despite these challenges, countries must prioritize the implementation and enforcement of restrictions on tobacco and e-cigarette marketing as these products represent not only a serious public health threat but also a violation of children's rights.
Published: 05/02/2020, Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Abstract: … Nationally representative data from the years 2006-2015 indicate that the prevalence of perceived great risk of smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day has declined significantly among the United States general population. These findings have important implications for initiation of cigarette smoking, as well as interest in quitting, quit attempts, and sustained cessation.
Published: 08/10/20, Paediatric International
Conclusions: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome occurs more often in children exposed to tobacco smoke and these children demonstrate concentration problems, tiredness and irritability/hyperactivity to a greater extent than control group.
Published: 01/02/20, The Lancet: Respiratory Journal
…For the first time since records began, the total number of men using tobacco worldwide is projected to decrease, according to the latest findings in the WHO tobacco prevalence report.
Published: 05/02/20, The Lancet: Respiratory Medicine
Besides reaffirming the superiority of combination smoking cessation therapy over monotherapy, which has already been shown, this study establishes the importance of the use of nicotine in e-cigarettes to optimise smoking cessation success. Although the results presented are significant, the effect size in terms of abstinence is quite modest.
Published: 07/02/20 – Addiction
Conclusions: Among young people in urban California USA, differences in day-to-day exposure to tobacco outlets within activity spaces does not seem to be significantly associated with whether a person smokes a cigarette on a given day, but higher exposure to tobacco outlets appears to be positively associated with the number of cigarettes smoked on that day.
Conclusions: The introduction of standardised tobacco packaging and new larger graphic health warnings in the United Kingdom seems have reduced the perceived attractiveness of cigarette packs among young people in the UK who smoke or are at elevated risk of becoming smokers, disrupting positive brand imagery (the brand heuristic), increasing the salience of health warnings, and contributing to denormalising smoking.
Published: 07/02/20 – Neuropharmacology
…By controlling for important sociodemographic and health confounders, such as alcohol use, this study identifies distinct associations between smoking and brain structure, highlighting potential mechanisms of risk for common neurological sequelae (e.g., dementia).
Published: 31/01/20, Addiction
Conclusions: Single and multi-substance interventions addressing tobacco and/or cannabis have not shown a clear effect on either tobacco or cannabis cessation and reduction amongst co-users. However, dual substance interventions targeting tobacco and cannabis appear feasible.
Published: 31/01/20, British Journal of Cancer
Conclusion: The data suggest that nicotine treatment, by perturbing intracellular redox state and altering p53 function, can create a pro-tumorigenic environment in lung epithelium. The results suggest caution in using nicotine replacement therapies and e-cigarette
Published: 30/01/20, Scientific Reports
Results: We found that daily or almost daily consumption of tobacco and alcohol were both significantly associated with increased relative brain age.
Published: 03/01/20, JAMA
Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that several state regulations regarding e-cigarettes may be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among US adults.
Published: 29/01/20, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Results: The identified themes were categorized into three topic areas: knowledge (eg, impact of smoking on illness and why they should not smoke); individual decision to quit (eg, motivators), and the social unacceptability of smoking (eg, the public perception of smoking over the last 40 years). HCP-identified themes included identification of smokers, triggers to start a conversation, approach, gaps and barriers to cessation, rationale for cessation, and judgment. Patient-identified themes included knowledge, individual decision to quit, and the social unacceptability of smoking
Published: Feb 2020, Spatial and Spatiotemporal Epidemiology
Abstract: Neighborhood characteristics and the built environment are important determinants in shaping health inequalities. Our findings suggest that future polices must account for the differential distribution of retailers based on land use mix to lower concentration in areas where it is needed the most.
Published: 27/01/20, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Conclusion: Comparison of our results to the literature illustrates the need for development of a standardized ENDS testing protocol. Our results further support that device variability must be fully characterized and considered before assessing the impact of e-liquid formulations.
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