Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 30/01 - 26/02
Public Health England - Vaping in England: evidence update February 2021
Published: 26/02/2021, Public Health England
This report covers the latest evidence on prevalence and characteristics of vaping in young people and adults in England, with a particular focus on data emerging since the last vaping evidence report published in 2020. This report also includes an update of the evidence on the impact of vaping products on smoking cessation, last examined in detail in the 2018 e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products evidence report.
E-cigarette-inclusive smoke-free policies, excise taxes, tobacco 21 and changes in youth e-cigarette use: 2017–2019
Published: 25/02/2021, Tobacco Control
Results Prevalence of ever and past 30-day youth e-cigarette use in states with ESF policies decreased during 2017–2019, while the prevalence of these measures in states without ESF policies increased. States with T21 policies showed non-significant changes in prevalence of ever and past 30-day youth e-cigarette use, whereas states without T21 policies showed significant increases in ever and past 30-day youth e-cigarette use. States with ESF and T21 policies showed slower increases in youth frequent e-cigarette use. E-cigarette excise taxes were not associated with decreasing prevalence of youth e-cigarette use.
A Pilot Study of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Sampling and Selection to Increase Medication Adherence in Low-Income Smokers
Published: 20/10/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications Medication adherence remains a significant impediment to the successful smoking cessation. The results of this study suggest that guided sampling of NRT products improves adherence among low-income smokers. Additionally, this approach yielded greater improvements in smoking behavior compared to gold standard smoking cessation treatment. This intervention shows promise as a feasible smoking cessation treatment for low-income smokers.
Associations between vaping and Covid-19: Cross-sectional findings from the HEBECO study
Published: 13/02/2021, Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Conclusions Among UK adults, self-reported diagnosed/suspected Covid-19 was not associated with vaping status. Half of current vapers changed their vaping consumption since Covid-19, with the majority reporting an increase, and a minority was motivated to quit due to Covid-19.
How does the use of flavored nicotine vaping products relate to progression towards quitting smoking? Findings from the 2016 and 2018 ITC 4CV Surveys
Published: 25/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications With multiple jurisdictions considering limiting or banning the sale of flavored NVPs, it is important to consider how such policies may impact smokers using NVPs to transition away from cigarette smoking. Our results indicate that vapers who used sweet flavors were more likely to transition away from cigarette smoking and quit cigarette use, at least in the short term, compared to those who used tobacco or unflavored NVPs. Randomized clinical trials are needed to establish if the observed association between use of flavored e-liquids and smoking cessation is due to self-selection or is truly causal.
Tobacco cigarette smokers who endorse greater intolerance for nicotine withdrawal also report more severe insomnia symptoms
Conclusions these initial findings suggest that intolerance for nicotine withdrawal may warrant consideration as a potentially modifiable mechanistic factor in comorbid insomnia and nicotine/tobacco dependence.
Daily support and negative control during a quit attempt in single-smoking couples
Published: March/2021, Health Psychology
Conclusions: Support seems important during a quit attempt as it was related to a lower probability of smoking and higher relationship satisfaction in couples, while negative control behaviors should be avoided as they were associated with higher probability of smoking and lower relationship satisfaction.
The associations of smoking dependence motives with depression among daily smokers
Published: 24/02/2021, Addiction
Conclusions: Depression appears to be associated with smoking dependence and smoking dependence motives related to heavy, automatic use and use to regulate affective states. The associations appear to be confounded or mediated by neuroticism but are independent of shared familial influences.
The delivery of smoking cessation interventions by nurses who smoke: A meta-ethnographic synthesis
Published: 26/02/2021, Journal of Advanced Nursing
Results Four main themes were identified beliefs, dissonance, coping mechanisms and workplace policies. Nurses who smoke were aware of tobacco harms and their role in addressing tobacco use, which resulted in experiences of guilt and stigma. Workplace policies played a crucial role in the creation of cognitive dissonance. Nurses used different strategies to cope with dissonance such as rationalizing smoking benefits, hiding their smoking behaviour, denial of smoking risks, and failing to engage with smoking cessation interventions. Some nurses expressed more positive aspirations to cope with their dissonance, including a willingness to quit and to embrace smoking cessation interventions with their patients.
Association of smoking history with severe and critical outcome in COVID-19 patients: A systemic review and meta-analysis
Published: 18/02/2021, European Journal of Integrative Medicine
Conclusions Smoking was associated with severe or critical outcomes and increased the risk of admission to ICU and mortality in COVID-19 patients, but not associated with mechanical ventilation. This association was more significant for former smokers than in current smokers. Current smokers also had a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 compared with non-smokers. More detailed data, which are representative for more counties, are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
Healthcare resources attributable to child tobacco smoke exposure
Published: 23/02/2021, PLos One
Conclusions Tobacco smoke-exposed children had higher urgent care utilization and hospital admissions over 12-months, and higher pediatric ED costs at baseline. Pediatric ED visits, urgent care visits, and hospitalizations may be opportune times for initiating tobacco control interventions, which may result in reductions of preventable acute care visits.
Supporting smoking cessation and preventing relapse following a stay in a smokefree setting: A meta-analysis and investigation of effective behaviour change techniques
Published: 23/02/2021, Addiction
Conclusion A systematic review and meta-analyses indicate that behavioural and pharmacological support is effective in maintaining smoking abstinence following a stay in a smokefree institution. Several behaviour change techniques may help to maintain smoking abstinence up to 18 months post-discharge.
Smoking cessation in individuals who use vaping as compared with traditional nicotine replacement therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 22/02/2021, BMJ Open
Conclusion We found no difference in smoking cessation, harms and smoking reduction between e-cigarette and NRT users. However, the quality of the evidence was low. Further research is needed before widespread recommendations are made with regard to the use of ENDS.
Effect of Cigarette Constituent Messages With Engagement Text on Intention to Quit Smoking Among Adults Who Smoke Cigarettes - A Randomized Clinical Trial
Published: 26/02/2021, JAMA Open
Conclusions and Relevance To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal test of cigarette constituent campaign messages in a national sample of adults who currently smoke. Messages about cigarette smoke constituents, with or without engagement text and source information, increased participants’ intentions to quit, lending support to FDA efforts to educate consumers about such constituents.
'It's all the other stuff!' How smokers understand (and misunderstand) chemicals in cigarettes and cigarette smoke
Published: 24/02/2021, Public Understanding of Science
… Most participants believed that cigarettes differ significantly in harmfulness according to whether or not they were believed to contain additives. Only a minority understood that the bulk of the toxicants to which smokers are exposed are combustion products. These findings are directly relevant to tobacco control but also have broader relevance to risk communications about toxic exposures.
Tobacco retail licencing systems in Europe
Published: 12/02/2021, Tobacco Control
The response of smokers to health warnings on packs in the United Kingdom and Norway following the introduction of standardised packaging
Published: 18/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Implications Two longitudinal online surveys in the UK and Norway explored the impact of standardised packaging on warning salience and effectiveness. That warning salience and effectiveness only increased in the UK post-implementation, where standardised packaging was implemented alongside new larger pictorial warnings on the pack front and reverse, and not in Norway, where standardised packaging was introduced but older smaller text warnings (pack front) and pictorial warnings (pack reverse) were retained, highlights the importance of removing full branding and introducing stronger warnings simultaneously
Associations Between Infant Developmental Delays and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Modified by Maternal Pre-pregnancy Overweight and Obesity Status
Published: 08/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Conclusions Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and infancy were associated with delayed neurodevelopmental milestone achievement at eighteen months, and the associations were modified by maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status.
Exposure to Nicotine and Toxicants Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013–2014
Published: 16/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions In 2013–2014, most dual users smoked cigarettes daily and used e-cigarettes occasionally. Cigarette smoking appears to be the primary driver of toxicant exposure among dual users, with little-to-no effect of e-cigarette use on biomarker levels. Results reinforce the need for dual users to stop smoking tobacco cigarettes to reduce toxicant exposure.
Parental anti-smoking encouragement as a longitudinal predictor of young adult cigarette and e-cigarette use in a US national study
Conclusions The longitudinal negative association between anti-smoking encouragement and cigarette use suggests that parental anti-tobacco communication could be a long-term protective factor against young adult tobacco use. Our findings may also suggest the importance of product-specific messages in the evolving tobacco use landscape.
The influence of smoking motivation on the associations among cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking cues, and smoking behaviour
Conclusions Maintenance of attention on drug-related cues may be a valid index of incentive motivation. Importantly, however, these dwell time bias scores were not predictive of actual SB.
Motivations and methods of dual users to quit vaping: Survey findings from adults who use electronic and combustible cigarettes
Published: 16/02/2021, Tobacco Induced Disease
Conclusions Dual users had a range of motivations and methods to quit ECs, most of which were similar to their motivations and methods to quit CCs. These findings support the need to develop treatment for adults motivated to quit ECs and demonstrate that dual users may currently engage in similar strategies to quit both products.
The Impact of Psychiatric Disorder Diagnosis on Motivation to Quit and Stage of Change Among Patients at a Hospital-Based Outpatient Smoking Cessation Clinic
Published: 18/02/2021, Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Conclusions Having made ≥ 1 quit attempt in the past year was associated with higher motivation to quit (MtQ). Our study suggests that people with PDs are as motivated to quit smoking and ready for change as people without PDs, and smoking cessation efforts should be amplified in this group to address the disproportionately high level of tobacco use, especially because having at least one quit attempt may enhance MtQ.
E-cigarettes use prior to smoking combustible cigarettes among dual users: The roles of social anxiety and E-cigarette outcome expectancies
Published: 04/02/2021, Addictive Behaviour
Findings add to a growing literature that dual users initiated with e-cigarettes and extend understanding of this phenomenon by identifying that socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to doing so, at least partially due to expectations regarding e-cigarette's ability to manage negative affect and/or weight.
Tobacco 21 Policies in the U.S.: The Importance of Local Control With Federal Policy
Published: 15/02/2020, Americal Journal of Preventative Medicine
Conclusions Local policies can play an important role in tobacco control by providing an added layer to ensure adequate enforcement of age-restriction policies and allow an avenue to introduce strict measures that may diffuse into higher branches of government for policy adoption. Although many local Tobacco 21 policies fill regulatory gaps within the state and federal laws, often there is a lack of model components to ensure that policies are implemented as intended.
A pre-evaluation of psychological factors may positively affect the outcomes of smoking cessation treatments: A comparison in terms of smoking behaviour
Published: 12/02/2021, Tobacco Prevention and Cessation
Conclusions We suggest that the results of the psychometric preliminary evaluations should be customized for individuals applying to smoking cessation clinics and that including the individual's close social connections in the process can facilitate the decision to quit, thus increase smoking cessation rates.
A review of constituents identified in e-cigarette liquids and aerosols
Published: 10/02/2021, Tobacco Prevention and Cessation
Conclusions E-liquids and aerosols contain a variety of chemicals with potential health effects from inhaling them. Further, secondhand health effects are unknown because of limited understanding of the dose of exposure by non-users. Identification of constituents in e-cigarettes is the first step to determine their risks to humans and support evidence-based regulations and health policies.
Indicators of dependence and efforts to quit vaping and smoking among youth in Canada, England and the USA
Published: 01/02/2021, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Prevalence of dependence symptoms among young e-cigarette users increased between 2017 and 2019, more so in Canada and the USA compared with England. Dependence symptom prevalence was lower for e-cigarettes than smoking; however, the gap has narrowed over time.
Heated debates on regulations of heated tobacco products in South Korea: the news valence, source and framing of relative risk/benefit
Published: 04/02/2021, Tobacco Control
Conclusions We provide implications for governments and tobacco control advocates on building consensus for applying cigarette equivalent taxes and pictorial warning labels to HTPs.
Early adoption of heated tobacco products resembles that of e-cigarettes
Conclusions Only a small fraction of US population in 2020 have tried any HTP. However, the similarity in early adoption rates following awareness, suggests that future adoption for HTP may be similar to that for e-cigarettes, if HTP are marketed more aggressively.
Changes in Tobacco Use During the 2020 COVID-19 Lockdown in New Zealand
Published: 30/01/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions Smoking cessation services need to anticipate that unexpected disruptions, such as pandemic lockdowns, may be associated with increased daily tobacco consumption, and that this increase may be sustained after lockdown. While public health responses to pandemics predictably focus on immediate and obvious consequences, interventions to support recent quitters and those making quit attempts should also form a key component of pandemic planning.
What works in tobacco control? Making the case for something old and something new
Published: 02/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
This article discusses recently published papers on the role of E-cigarettes in reducing smoking prevalence. One of these papers suggest that even in the most optimistic scenarios vaping alone will not be enough to tackle the burden of tobacco
Better Understanding Harm Reduction
Published: 04/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
This article discusses two recently published papers in Nicotine and Tobacco Control on harm reduction
Vaping in pregnancy: A systematic review
Conclusions There were insufficient data to draw conclusions about prevalence, patterns and effects of vaping in pregnancy on smoking cessation. The limited literature suggests that vaping in pregnancy has little or no effect on birthweight.
Shared environmental influences on electronic cigarette use among adolescent and young adult females
Published: 04/02/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusion This first study on the behavioral genetics of e-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults suggest that environmental factors shared by twins within a family seem to play a predominant role in the initial stages of e-cigarette use, a finding that is consistent with what has been found for tobacco. The findings emphasize the importance of continuing population-based tobacco control interventions to reduce the burden of e-cigarette use among adolescents.
Social norms as a predictor of smoking uptake among youth: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of prospective cohort studies
Published: 04/02/2021, Addiction
Conclusions In this systematic review (narrative and meta-analysis), descriptive norms of parents' and close friends' smoking behaviour appeared to be consistent predictors of youth smoking initiation, more so than the descriptive norms of more distal social networks and injunctive norms.
Tobacco control policies in the 21 st century: achievements and open challenges
Published: 04/02/2021, Molecular Oncology
…Smoke-free environments should be extended, and the use of plain tobacco packaging with large pictorial health warnings for all tobacco products should be further promoted in some parts of the world. Some of these measures will require prompt determination and diligence. For example, bold political decisions are needed to significantly increase real prices of tobacco products through excise taxes, ban added ingredients that are currently used to increase the attractiveness of tobacco products, and ban the tobacco industry's corporate social responsibility initiatives. Finally, the debate on harm reduction strategies for tobacco control still needs to be resolved.
Retailer density reduction approaches to tobacco control: A review
Published: 31/01/2021, Health Place
Conclusion Density-reduction policies offer a promising approach to tobacco control.
Association between density and proximity of tobacco retail outlets with smoking: A systematic review of youth studies
Conclusions The existing evidence supports a positive association between tobacco retail outlet density and smoking behaviours among youth, particularly for the density near youths' home. This review provides evidence for the development and implementation of policies to reduce the density of tobacco retail outlets to reduce smoking prevalence among youth.
Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise on Smoking Cessation in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Published: 30/01/2021, Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Conclusions According to review, aerobic exercise may be effective in promoting smoking cessation at short-term, but not at medium- and long-term follow-ups.
That "Bulky Commodity, Tobacco"
Published: 09/01/2021, Chest
A historical view of the tobacco trade
Prevalence and trends in tobacco use among adolescents aged 13–15 years in 143 countries, 1999–2018: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys
Published: 02/02/2021, The Lancet
Interpretation The global prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents aged 13–15 years was substantial. Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time in the majority of countries, the prevalence of the use of other tobacco products increased or did not change in the majority of countries during the past two decades. These findings re-emphasise the need to strengthen tobacco control efforts among young adolescents globally.
Action on Smoking & Health (Scotland) (ASH Scotland) is a registered Scottish charity (SC 010412) and a company limited by guarantee(Scottish company no 141711). The registered office is 8 Frederick Street, Edinburgh EH2 2HB.
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