Taking action on smoking and health
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 23/12/2019
Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is considering reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes to “minimally or non-addictive levels.” However, important research gaps remain, and the FDA must determine when the available research is sufficient to support moving forward.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 23/12/19
Introduction: This Special Issue on nicotine standards in the United States will address many of the questions raised in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) through a series of policy commentaries and timely empirical studies across a variety of topic areas within the proposed comprehensive nicotine standards plan. The questions addressed in this issue include: (1) the threshold dose of nicotine (and other constituents) that would lead to minimally addictive cigarettes; (2) the effects of a nicotine product standard in smokers with co-morbidity, youth and young adult smokers, and menthol smokers; (3) a step-down or targeted data approach to reducing nicotine in cigarettes; (4) perceptions and communications about product standards; and (5) requirements associated with the implementation of a nicotine product standard.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 27/12/19
Abstract: Risk perception is an important construct in many health behavior theories. Smoking risk perceptions are thoughts and feelings about the harms associated with cigarette smoking. Wide variation in the terminology, definition, and assessment of this construct makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the associations of risk perceptions with smoking behaviors. To understand optimal methods of assessing adults’ cigarette smoking risk perceptions (among both smokers and nonsmokers), we reviewed best practices from the tobacco control literature, and where gaps were identified, we looked more broadly to the research on risk perceptions in other health domains.
Abstract: ….There is now considerable evidence, especially in the last five years, that suggest menthol might influence the addictive potential of nicotine-containing tobacco products via biological mechanisms. First, menthol alters the expression, stoichiometry, and function of nicotinic receptors. Second, menthol’s chemosensory properties operate to mask aversive properties of using tobacco products. Third, menthol’s chemosensory properties aid in serving as a conditioned cue that can both enhance nicotine intake and drive relapse. Fourth, menthol alters nicotine metabolism, increasing its bioavailability. This review discusses emerging evidence for these mechanisms, with an emphasis on preclinical findings that may shed light on why menthol smokers exhibit greater dependence.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the relevance of smoking status to effort-based decisions and suggest that smokers have diminished sensitivity to nondrug reward value. Among ex-smokers, greater pre-existing sensitivity to reward value may have been conducive to smoking cessation, or sensitivity was improved by smoking cessation. Future prospective studies can investigate whether effort-related decision making is predictive of smoking initiation or cessation success.
Journal Health Communication. 03/01/20
Introduction: Electronic cigarette use among youth and young adults has reached an epidemic proportion of growth. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of the breadth of media scanning about e-cigarette use on subsequent vaping behavior through interpersonal communication and changes in descriptive norm perceptions. results from both cross-sectional and lagged analyses provided robust evidence to suggest that passive routine exposure to e-cigarette use content from more media outlets predicted increased likelihood of vaping among youth and young adults. High scanners were about twice as likely to vape as non-scanners (17% versus 9%).
Tobacco Induced Diseases. 11/12/19
CONCLUSIONS: In our context among COPD patients, GSC was more effective in decreasing smoking than NRT alone. Moreover, the recovery of exhaled carbon monoxide, CAT and QoL in GSC was more than in the NRT group. Moreover, since GSC was as effective as GSC plus NRT, the effectiveness of the combination method for smoking cessation in COPD patients may be attributed to GSC
Journal of Medical Internet Research. 03/01/20
BACKGROUND: Our previous infodemiological study was performed by manually mining health-effect data associated with electronic cigarettes (ECs) from online forums. Manual mining is time consuming and limits the number of posts that can be retrieved. CONCLUSIONS: …we obtained more data than in our prior study, identified new symptoms and disorders associated with EC use, determined which systems are most frequently adversely affected, identified specific symptoms and disorders most commonly reported, and tracked health effects over 7 years.
Tobacco Control. 28/12/19
….In this issue, a collection of papers demonstrates that despite their many versions of saying ‘we’ve changed’, tobacco companies continue their old, nicotine-fueled habits. Through innovative pricing strategies, they keep tobacco products cheap enough to thwart the effects of government-imposed tobacco taxes designed to discourage consumption, thereby keeping people from quitting….
E Clinical Medicine. 17/12/19
[Q and A, with Rose Marie Robertson, MD, the group’s deputy chief science and medical officer, spoke with JAMA about e-cigarettes’ health effects, the urgent need for more research, and initiatives to reduce youth vaping]
Published: 08/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: Greater social media use and heavier exposure to advertisements and e-cigarette content in social media posts are associated with a greater risk for e-cigarette use among adolescents. Regulatory action is needed to prohibit sponsored e-cigarette content on social media platforms used by youth.
Published: 07/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that plain packaging is a promising intervention for daily smokers, particularly those low in IS, and contributes evidence in support of impending implementation of plain packaging in Canada.
Published: 08/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusion: This study found no significant association between cigarette prices and reporting being offered illicit cigarettes; sharing a border with a non-EEA member state was linked to illicit trade. This study adds to evidence that increasing prices of cigarettes are not associated with illicit trade and that the focus should remain on securing supply chains, including through features such independent traceability systems
Published: 08/01/20 - Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.
Conclusions: The policy options examined in this study would considerably reduce the overall availability of tobacco, decrease cues to smoke and reduce the density of tobacco sales around schools. However, inequities in availability would exist with access to tobacco in rural areas disproportionately reduced, and a positive sociodemographic gradient remaining. Implications for public health: Substantially reducing tobacco availability has been identified as a crucial tobacco control strategy. This study provides information on the impact of different policy options to support Smokefree 2025.
Published: 08/01/20 - PLos One.
Result: Higher Beck Depression Index (BDI) score was associated with poorer Physical Compsition Score and Mental Composition Score across all quintiles. The association of smoking with impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among university students in two different settings was mediated by higher levels of depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the need for further research on the interaction between smoking, mental health and quality of life, with implications for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
Published: 03/01/20 - Journal of Proteomics.
Abstract: Nicotine, a major addictive component in tobacco, plays an important role in the changes of body weight upon smoking and its cessation. Here we showed that nicotine-treated mice exhibited weight loss and nicotine withdrawal led to weight gain. Our study may provide novel targets for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of nicotine- and withdrawal-induced alteration in body weight.
Published: 12/19 - Journal of Addictive Diseases.
…This review demonstrates the vulnerability of smokers with SSD and underscores the need for research in these areas with large enough sample sizes to detect treatment effects: 1) outcomes using and comparing standard treatments 2) long-term cessation/reduction outcomes 3) flexible treatment options 4) more research to develop the evidence-base for e-cigarettes intervention.
Published: 07/01/19 - International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
CONCLUSIONS: The specific asthmatic populations identified with our search shall be specifically targeted with health care policies aimed at decreasing the impact of cigarette-smoking on their asthma condition and thereby contributing to lower the clinical, societal, and economic burden of smoking-related asthma.
Published: 07/01/20 - Journal of Clinical Periodontology.
CONCLUSIONS: While aiming to improve treatment outcomes and the maintenance of periodontal health, current evidence suggests that interventions for smoking cessation and diabetes control are effective thus emphasizing the need of behavioural support in periodontal care.
Published: 02/01/20 - Health Promotion Practice.
Abstract Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and food insecurity also disproportionately affects lower-income groups. Recent studies have suggested that smoking and food insecurity operate as risk factors for one another, but there is limited understanding of their intersection. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the published literature on the association between food insecurity and tobacco use across population groups in the United States and Canada
Published: 04/01/20 - The Lancet.
… Tripling real cigarette prices would approximately halve cigarette consumption worldwide.Although high excise taxes could increase smuggling, weak customs enforcement (rather than high price) is the main determinant of illegal cigarette sales. Importantly, the tobacco industry actively smuggles its own products.Illegal sales affect not only revenue but overall sales, and hence mortality. France and Canada illustrate the effects of price on consumption.
Published: Feb’20 - American Public Health Association.
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and food insecurity also disproportionately affects lower-income groups. Recent studies have suggested that smoking and food insecurity operate as risk factors for one another, but there is limited understanding of their intersection. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the published literature on the association between food insecurity and tobacco use across population groups in the United States and Canada
Published: 02/01/20 - Health Promotion Practice.
Conclusions: For youth, the perceived health risks of e-cigarette product contents were associated with demographics, sexual orientation, and SES. The findings may have relevance for developing communication and education strategies addressing specific youth audiences, especially those in vulnerable groups
Published: 13/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: past-30-day (p30d) us of e-cig use among youth. Data from National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). Results: In 2018, 81.4% of students had not used any tobacco or vapor product in the p30d, and 86.2% had not vaped in the p30d. Among all students, of the 13.8% vaped in the p30d, just over half vaped on ≤5 days (7.0%), and roughly a quarter each vaped on 6-19 days (3.2%) and on 20+ days (3.6%). Almost three quarters of p30d vapers (9.9%) reported past or concurrent tobacco use and the remainder (3.9%) were tobacco naïve. 2.8% of students were tobacco naïve and vaped on ≤5 days; 0.7% were tobacco-naïve and vaped on 6-19 days, and 0.4% were tobacco-naïve and vaped on 20+ days.
Published: 12/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: No Sub-Saharan Africa country had comprehensive smoke-free policies, defined as a prohibition of smoking in eight public places. In the four countries whose GATS data were analyzed (Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, and Uganda), support for the prohibition of smoking in public places was over 90% in all eight public places except bars. Support for smoking prohibition in bars was 65.8%, 81.1%, 81.4%, and 91.0% in Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, and Uganda, respectively.
Published: 12/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results: Among women, we found a significant indirect effect of lower body esteem on higher likelihood of current e-cigarette use one year later, mediated by higher weight control outcome expectancies at six-month follow-up, adjusting for demographics, BMI, and baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking . Among men body esteem was not found to have significant effect on either weight control expectancies or e-cigarette use.
Published: 13/01/20 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: These two gene [Smokescreen Genotyping Array and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors] sets are associated with smoking behaviors, but collectively account for a limited amount of the genetic and phenotypic variation of these complex traits, consistent with high polygenicity.
Published: 09/01/20 - Tobacco Control.
…the Smokeless Tobacco (SLT) industry has continued to circumvent Indian law by finding ways to keep its brands visible by using brand stretching, applying SLT brands to non-tobacco products
Smoking cessation and weight change in relation to cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study
Published: 07/01/20 - Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology.
INTERPRETATION: Smoking cessation without subsequent weight gain is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality among smokers with type 2 diabetes. Weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the reduction in risk of developing cardiovascular disease, but does not attenuate the beneficial effect of smoking cessation with respect to mortality. These findings confirm the overall health benefits of quitting smoking among people with type 2 diabetes, but also emphasise the importance of weight management after smoking cessation to maximise its health benefits.
Progression of the smoking epidemic in high-income regions and its effects on male-female survival differences: a cohort-by-age analysis of 17 countries
Published: 10/01/20 - BMC Public Health.
RESULTS: In all three high-income regions, smoking explained up to 50% of sex differences in period life expectancy between ages 50 and 85 over the study period. These sex differences have declined since at least 1980, driven by smoking-attributable mortality, which tended to decline in males and increase in females overall. Thus, there was a convergence between sexes across recent cohorts. While smoking-attributable mortality was still increasing for older female cohorts, it was declining for females in the more recent cohorts in the US and Europe, as well as for males in all three regions.
Maternal cigarette smoke exposure disturbs glutamate/GABA balance in pFRG of neonatal rats
Published: 07/01/20 - Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology
Results: These results indicate that maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure leads to a disturbance of GLU/GABA balance in pFRG of the neonatal rats, which might contribute to the suppression of central chemoreception in maternal CS-exposed offspring.
Electronic Cigarette Use and Chronic Respiratory Symptoms Among United States Adults
Published: 10/01/20 - American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Correction: electronic nicotine delivery systems and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems for tobacco smoking cessation or reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 10/01/20 - British Medical Journal Open.
Maternal smoking and cannabis use during pregnancy and infant outcomes
Published: 11/01/20 - Journal of Perinatal Medicine.
Results: … Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower birthweight and head circumference. Young, mixed-race women were most likely to be both smoking and using cannabis during pregnancy and their infants had a lower birthweight and head circumference than cigarette use alone.
The Association Between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Survival for Patients with Heart Failure
Published: 08/01/20 - Journal of Cardiac Failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Second-hand-smoke exposure is associated with a dose-dependent increase in mortality for patients with heart failure.
Student Attitudes Toward Tobacco Use and Tobacco Policies on College Campuses
Published: 10/01/20 - Journal of Community Health.
Conclusions: E-cigarettes pose a unique obstacle to tobacco-free policies, as students perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes. To implement a tobacco-free campus policy, students suggested educational campaigns that focus on the potential health benefits of a tobacco-free campus.
Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on Indoor Air Quality and Health
Published: 07/01/20 - Annual Review of Public Health.
…Exposures to mainstream e-cig aerosols have biologic effects but only limited evidence showing adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects in humans. Long-term studies are needed to better understand the dosimetry and health effects of exposures to secondhand e-cig aerosols.
Published: 15/01/2020 - Tobacco Control.
Conclusion For some, IQOS facilitated smoking substitution. Factors such as packaging, labelling, risk communication, price and smoke-free policies appear to influence initiation and use
Published: 15/01/2020 - Tobacco Control.
Conclusions: The results support the ‘gateway’ prediction that declines in cigarette smoking among adolescents pull downward their non-medical use of amphetamines, tranquillisers and opioids. Continuing to reduce adolescent smoking through policy and programmatic prevention efforts should have further positive spillover effects on adolescent drug use.
Published: 16/01/20 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Results: In 2014, e0 ranged from 70.8 years in Russia to 83.1 years in Switzerland. Men exhibited larger country differences than women (variance of 21.9 and 7.0 years, respectively). Country differences in e0 increased up to 2005, and declined thereafter. Among men, the average contribution of smoking to the country differences in e0 was highest around 1990 (47%), and declined to 35% in 2014. Among women, the average relative contribution of smoking declined from 1991 to 2011, and smoking resulted in smaller differences in the average e0 level in the majority of European countries. For both sexes combined, the contribution of smoking to country differences in e0 was higher than 20% throughout the period.
Published: 15/01/20 - Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation in clopidogrel-treated patients after PCI is associated with increased platelet reactivity and greater risk of HPR. Alternative P2Y12 inhibitors may be considered in selected patients who stop smoking after PCI.
Published: 07/01/20 - Indian Journal of Dental Research.
Results: Prevalence of tobacco consumption among students was 16.4%. Out of total 82 tobacco users, 89% were male, whereas 11% were female. Smokeless tobacco consumption was predominant with Gutka being most preferred. Mean age of initiation of smoking form of tobacco was 9.57 ± 1.13 year, whereas for smokeless form, it was 9.25 ± 1.16 years. Friends (78.04%) were most common influencing factors, followed by family member (12.2%) and media (9.7%)
Published: 11/01/20 - Cureus
This review article summarizes the growing knowledge of acute respiratory complications associated with vaping
Published: 14/01/20 - Journal of Womens Health.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the divergent predictors of postdeployment tobacco use for male and female veterans, there may be sex-specific barriers to tobacco-use cessation, including factors related to mental health conditions such as PTSD. Further examination of sex differences can help to identify tailored intervention strategies.
Published: 14/01/20 - Plos One
RESULTS: 1541 children were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of current household ETS exposure was 31.5%, prevalence of prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking was 3.5% and 1.6% respectively. Independent factors associated with children's ETS exposure were: never breastfed; prenatal maternal smoking; overcrowding of household living place; lower household income.
Published: 13/01/20 - Systematic Reviews
BACKGROUND: Small/kiddie cigarette packs consist of less than 20 cigarette sticks. Kiddie packs were recently proposed to be reintroduced by the tobacco industry with an excuse to prevent consumers from buying illicit cigarettes. By reintroducing kiddie packs, cigarettes will inevitably be more affordable and this would appeal to lower-income consumers especially teens. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the impact of kiddie packs on smoking, specifically on smoking initiation, the urge/tendency to buy cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption.
Published: 13/01/20 - Tobacco Control.
RESULTS: Following T21 in Hawaii, average monthly cigarette unit sales dropped significantly (-4.4%, p<0.01) coupled with a significant decrease in menthol market share (-0.8, p<0.01).
Published: 13/01/20 - Nature Neuropsychopharmacology
…nicotine reduced NAcc functional connectivity with cortical regions including the anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. These regions showed the same negative relationship between reward anticipation and outcome as noted in the NAcc. The current findings significantly improve our understanding of how nicotine changes corticostriatal circuit function and communication during distinct phases of reward processing and critically show that these alterations happen acutely following a single dose…
Stop-smoking services in the UK
Published: 16/01/2020 - Lancet Oncology.
A new report jointly authored by Action on Smoking and Health [England] (ASH) and Cancer Research UK (CRUK) has warned that funding shortages could jeopardise the UK Government’s plan to make England smoke-free by 2030
Published: 18/01/2020 - Indoor Air.
This study examined airborne emissions from cigarette butts for styrene, 2-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, naphthalene, triacetin and nicotine. The 24 h emitted mass of nicotine from a cigarette butt at 25 °C could be up to 14 % of the literature reported nicotine masses emitted from a burning cigarette
Published: 20/01/20 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have a high smoking prevalence and low quit rates.Proactive tobacco cessation treatment is an effective strategy for tobacco users with SMI. Proactive outreach had a particularly strong effect on counselling utilization.
Transferring Racial/Ethnic Marketing Strategies From Tobacco to Food Corporations: Philip Morris and Kraft General Foods
Published: 16/01/20 - American Journal of Public Health.
The tobacco industry directly transferred racial/ethnic minority marketing knowledge and infrastructure to food and beverage companies. Given the substantial growth of food and beverage corporations, their targeting of vulnerable populations, and obesity-related disparities, public policy and community action is needed to address corporate target marketing.
Memory deterioration based on the tobacco smoke exposure and methylazoxymethanol acetate administration vs. aripiprazole, olanzapine and enrichment environment conditions
Published: 15/01/20 - Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour.
Results: Tobacco smoke exposer reduce spatial memory in a rat model of schizophrenia and administration of the antipsychotics Aripiprazole and Olanzapine
Changes in Nicotine Product Use among Dual Users of Tobacco and Electronic Cigarettes: Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2015
Published: 17/01/20 - Substance Use and Misuse.
Data from 1,082 dual users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes were analysed. Over a one year period, most dual users still smoked tobacco cigarettes. Frequency of cigarette and e-cigarette use at Wave 1 were each associated with odds of smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that daily e-cigarette use may increase dual users' chances of becoming smoke free.
Harmful drinking, tobacco, and marijuana use in the 2000-2015 National Alcohol Surveys: Examining differential trends by sexual identity
Published: 17/01/20 - Substance Abuse.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight that differences in patterns of substance use by sexual identity persist and underscore the need for screening, prevention, and intervention, particularly for sexual minority women.
Smoking prevalence among U.S. national samples of pregnant women [U.S]
Published: 14/01/20 - Preventative Medicine.
Onset of Regular Smoking Before Age 21 and Subsequent Nicotine Dependence and Cessation Behavior Among US Adult Smokers
Published: 16/01/20 - Preventing Chronic Disease.
RESULTS: We found that onset of regular smoking at age 18 to 20 years was associated with higher odds of nicotine dependence and lower odds of attempting and intending to quit. These outcomes were observed with regular smoking initiation at age 18 to 20 as well as before age 18, suggesting that efforts to prevent access to tobacco products before age 21 could reduce nicotine addiction and promote cessation later in life.
Predictive validation and forecasts of short-term changes in healthcare expenditure associated with changes in smoking behavior in the United States
Published: 16/01/20 - PloS One
CONCLUSION: Reductions in smoking produce substantial savings in real per capita healthcare expenditure in short to medium term. A 5% relative drop in smoking prevalence (about a 0.87% reduction in absolute prevalence) combined with a 5% drop in consumption per remaining smoker (about 16 packs/year) would be followed by a $31.5 billion reduction in healthcare expenditure (in 2014 dollars).
The EVALI and Youth Vaping Epidemics — Implications for Public Health
Published: 17/01/20 - The New England Journal of Medicine.
The United States is seeing what can be considered two distinct but related epidemics connected with vaping: the recent outbreak of lung injuries and the continued surge in use by young people. The implementation of interventions aimed at curbing these epidemics should take into consideration their underlying drivers.
CENTERS for DISEASE CONTROL and PREVENTION (CDC). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – EVALI update
Published: 17/01/20 - MMWR
What is added by this report? Nationwide, most EVALI patients with data on product source reported acquiring THC-containing products from only informal sources, whereas most nicotine-containing products were acquired from commercial sources. EVALI patients aged 13–17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were adult
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