Taking action on smoking and health
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 23/12/2019
Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is considering reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes to “minimally or non-addictive levels.” However, important research gaps remain, and the FDA must determine when the available research is sufficient to support moving forward.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 23/12/19
Introduction: This Special Issue on nicotine standards in the United States will address many of the questions raised in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) through a series of policy commentaries and timely empirical studies across a variety of topic areas within the proposed comprehensive nicotine standards plan. The questions addressed in this issue include: (1) the threshold dose of nicotine (and other constituents) that would lead to minimally addictive cigarettes; (2) the effects of a nicotine product standard in smokers with co-morbidity, youth and young adult smokers, and menthol smokers; (3) a step-down or targeted data approach to reducing nicotine in cigarettes; (4) perceptions and communications about product standards; and (5) requirements associated with the implementation of a nicotine product standard.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 27/12/19
Abstract: Risk perception is an important construct in many health behavior theories. Smoking risk perceptions are thoughts and feelings about the harms associated with cigarette smoking. Wide variation in the terminology, definition, and assessment of this construct makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the associations of risk perceptions with smoking behaviors. To understand optimal methods of assessing adults’ cigarette smoking risk perceptions (among both smokers and nonsmokers), we reviewed best practices from the tobacco control literature, and where gaps were identified, we looked more broadly to the research on risk perceptions in other health domains.
Abstract: ….There is now considerable evidence, especially in the last five years, that suggest menthol might influence the addictive potential of nicotine-containing tobacco products via biological mechanisms. First, menthol alters the expression, stoichiometry, and function of nicotinic receptors. Second, menthol’s chemosensory properties operate to mask aversive properties of using tobacco products. Third, menthol’s chemosensory properties aid in serving as a conditioned cue that can both enhance nicotine intake and drive relapse. Fourth, menthol alters nicotine metabolism, increasing its bioavailability. This review discusses emerging evidence for these mechanisms, with an emphasis on preclinical findings that may shed light on why menthol smokers exhibit greater dependence.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the relevance of smoking status to effort-based decisions and suggest that smokers have diminished sensitivity to nondrug reward value. Among ex-smokers, greater pre-existing sensitivity to reward value may have been conducive to smoking cessation, or sensitivity was improved by smoking cessation. Future prospective studies can investigate whether effort-related decision making is predictive of smoking initiation or cessation success.
Journal Health Communication. 03/01/20
Introduction: Electronic cigarette use among youth and young adults has reached an epidemic proportion of growth. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of the breadth of media scanning about e-cigarette use on subsequent vaping behavior through interpersonal communication and changes in descriptive norm perceptions. results from both cross-sectional and lagged analyses provided robust evidence to suggest that passive routine exposure to e-cigarette use content from more media outlets predicted increased likelihood of vaping among youth and young adults. High scanners were about twice as likely to vape as non-scanners (17% versus 9%).
Tobacco Induced Diseases. 11/12/19
CONCLUSIONS: In our context among COPD patients, GSC was more effective in decreasing smoking than NRT alone. Moreover, the recovery of exhaled carbon monoxide, CAT and QoL in GSC was more than in the NRT group. Moreover, since GSC was as effective as GSC plus NRT, the effectiveness of the combination method for smoking cessation in COPD patients may be attributed to GSC
Journal of Medical Internet Research. 03/01/20
BACKGROUND: Our previous infodemiological study was performed by manually mining health-effect data associated with electronic cigarettes (ECs) from online forums. Manual mining is time consuming and limits the number of posts that can be retrieved. CONCLUSIONS: …we obtained more data than in our prior study, identified new symptoms and disorders associated with EC use, determined which systems are most frequently adversely affected, identified specific symptoms and disorders most commonly reported, and tracked health effects over 7 years.
Tobacco Control. 28/12/19
….In this issue, a collection of papers demonstrates that despite their many versions of saying ‘we’ve changed’, tobacco companies continue their old, nicotine-fueled habits. Through innovative pricing strategies, they keep tobacco products cheap enough to thwart the effects of government-imposed tobacco taxes designed to discourage consumption, thereby keeping people from quitting….
E Clinical Medicine. 17/12/19
[Q and A, with Rose Marie Robertson, MD, the group’s deputy chief science and medical officer, spoke with JAMA about e-cigarettes’ health effects, the urgent need for more research, and initiatives to reduce youth vaping]
Published: 08/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: Greater social media use and heavier exposure to advertisements and e-cigarette content in social media posts are associated with a greater risk for e-cigarette use among adolescents. Regulatory action is needed to prohibit sponsored e-cigarette content on social media platforms used by youth.
Published: 07/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that plain packaging is a promising intervention for daily smokers, particularly those low in IS, and contributes evidence in support of impending implementation of plain packaging in Canada.
Published: 08/01/2020 - Nicotine and Tobacco Research.
Conclusion: This study found no significant association between cigarette prices and reporting being offered illicit cigarettes; sharing a border with a non-EEA member state was linked to illicit trade. This study adds to evidence that increasing prices of cigarettes are not associated with illicit trade and that the focus should remain on securing supply chains, including through features such independent traceability systems
Published: 08/01/20 - Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.
Conclusions: The policy options examined in this study would considerably reduce the overall availability of tobacco, decrease cues to smoke and reduce the density of tobacco sales around schools. However, inequities in availability would exist with access to tobacco in rural areas disproportionately reduced, and a positive sociodemographic gradient remaining. Implications for public health: Substantially reducing tobacco availability has been identified as a crucial tobacco control strategy. This study provides information on the impact of different policy options to support Smokefree 2025.
Published: 08/01/20 - PLos One.
Result: Higher Beck Depression Index (BDI) score was associated with poorer Physical Compsition Score and Mental Composition Score across all quintiles. The association of smoking with impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among university students in two different settings was mediated by higher levels of depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the need for further research on the interaction between smoking, mental health and quality of life, with implications for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
Published: 03/01/20 - Journal of Proteomics.
Abstract: Nicotine, a major addictive component in tobacco, plays an important role in the changes of body weight upon smoking and its cessation. Here we showed that nicotine-treated mice exhibited weight loss and nicotine withdrawal led to weight gain. Our study may provide novel targets for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of nicotine- and withdrawal-induced alteration in body weight.
Published: 12/19 - Journal of Addictive Diseases.
…This review demonstrates the vulnerability of smokers with SSD and underscores the need for research in these areas with large enough sample sizes to detect treatment effects: 1) outcomes using and comparing standard treatments 2) long-term cessation/reduction outcomes 3) flexible treatment options 4) more research to develop the evidence-base for e-cigarettes intervention.
Published: 07/01/19 - International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
CONCLUSIONS: The specific asthmatic populations identified with our search shall be specifically targeted with health care policies aimed at decreasing the impact of cigarette-smoking on their asthma condition and thereby contributing to lower the clinical, societal, and economic burden of smoking-related asthma.
Published: 07/01/20 - Journal of Clinical Periodontology.
CONCLUSIONS: While aiming to improve treatment outcomes and the maintenance of periodontal health, current evidence suggests that interventions for smoking cessation and diabetes control are effective thus emphasizing the need of behavioural support in periodontal care.
Published: 02/01/20 - Health Promotion Practice.
Abstract Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and food insecurity also disproportionately affects lower-income groups. Recent studies have suggested that smoking and food insecurity operate as risk factors for one another, but there is limited understanding of their intersection. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the published literature on the association between food insecurity and tobacco use across population groups in the United States and Canada
Published: 04/01/20 - The Lancet.
… Tripling real cigarette prices would approximately halve cigarette consumption worldwide.Although high excise taxes could increase smuggling, weak customs enforcement (rather than high price) is the main determinant of illegal cigarette sales. Importantly, the tobacco industry actively smuggles its own products.Illegal sales affect not only revenue but overall sales, and hence mortality. France and Canada illustrate the effects of price on consumption.
Published: Feb’20 - American Public Health Association.
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is increasingly concentrated in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and food insecurity also disproportionately affects lower-income groups. Recent studies have suggested that smoking and food insecurity operate as risk factors for one another, but there is limited understanding of their intersection. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the published literature on the association between food insecurity and tobacco use across population groups in the United States and Canada
Published: 02/01/20 - Health Promotion Practice.
Conclusions: For youth, the perceived health risks of e-cigarette product contents were associated with demographics, sexual orientation, and SES. The findings may have relevance for developing communication and education strategies addressing specific youth audiences, especially those in vulnerable groups
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