Taking action on smoking and health
Research period 28/02 - 30/03
Changes in Cigarettes per Day and Biomarkers of Exposure Among US Adult Smokers in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Waves 1 and 2 (2013–2015)
Published: 28/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Abstract Some studies have found some reduction in tobacco exposure and tobacco-related disease risk with decreased numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusions Smoking “reducers” and “increasers” had changes in some biomarker of tobacco exposure levels, but reductions were much greater and more consistent for complete quitters.
Data visualization tools of tobacco product use patterns, transitions and sex differences in the PATH youth data [US]
Published: 27/02/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusion Set intersection bar plots and heat maps are useful for visualizing tobacco product use patterns and transitions, especially for multiple products. Both techniques could identify common problematic tobacco use patterns across and within populations.
Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention Program as an Adjunct to the Standard Treatment for Smoking: A Pragmatic Design Pilot Study
Implications Findings suggest that Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) is acceptable, feasible, and valued by participants. At twenty-four week follow up, there was a large effect size and a statistical trend toward fewer MBRP patients relapsing compared to ST patients. MBRP conferred ancillary benefits including reductions in craving and increases in levels of mindfulness. MBRP for tobacco cessation is highly promising and merits further research.
Associations Between Smoking and Walking, Fatigue, Depression, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis
Published: 28/03/2020, Acta Neurologica Belgica
Results: Cigarette smokers with MS had significantly more fatigue and depression symptom severity and less health-related quality of life compared to non-smokers. Increased pack-years of cigarette smoking was associated with worse walking ability and health-related quality of life, and greater depression symptom severity and fatigue.
Differences in acute reinforcement across reduced nicotine content cigarettes
Published: 27/03/2020, Psychopharmacology
Conclusions Although replication with larger samples and longer access is needed, results indicate that nicotine reduction to ≤ 2.3 mg/g in cigarettes would attenuate reinforcement. This choice procedure may efficiently inform future clinical trials to assess relative reinforcing effects of smoking reduced nicotine cigarettes.
E-cigarette use in reproductive-aged women and pregnancy: a rising health concern
Published: 25/03/2020, Fertility and Sterility
…e-cigarette use among reproductive-aged women appears to be steadily increasing. In addition, although 18%–25% of women quit once pregnant, many supplement or replace tobacco products with e-cigarette use. This has not proven to be effective…
Neural Basis of Smoking-Related Difficulties in Emotion Regulation
Published: 27/03/2020, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Conclusions These findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation in smokers are at least partially due to lack of emotional clarity. Given the role of the inferior frontal gyrus in understanding emotional states, strengthening connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior frontal gyrus may improve emotional clarity to help smokers regulate their negative emotions, thereby improving their ability to quit smoking.
Is Nicotine Damaging to Oral Tissues?
Published: March 2020, Evidence Based Dentistry
Conclusions At the concentrations found in smokers and users of NRT including e-cigarettes, nicotine is unlikely to be toxic to human gingival and periodontal ligament cells in in-vitro. Higher concentrations of nicotine, of the levels observed in the saliva of smokeless tobacco users, have been shown to be cytotoxic in vitro.
Drug Misuse, Tobacco Smoking, Alcohol and Other Social Determinants of Tuberculosis in UK-born Adults in England: A Community-Based Case-Control Study
Published: 27/03/2020, Scientific Reports
Conclusions Our findings suggest that socio-economic deprivation remains a driver of tuberculosis in England, including through drugs misuse, tobacco smoking, and homelessness.
Cardiovascular Autonomic Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Systematic Review
Published: 27/03/2020, Clinical Autonomic Research
Results: Nineteen studies were included in this systematic review, all of which used earlier generation EC devices. Acute EC vaping increased HR and BP less than acute TC smoking. Nicotine but not non-nicotine constituents in EC aerosol were responsible for the sympathoexcitatory effects. The results of chronic EC vaping studies were consistent with a chronic sympathoexcitatory effect as estimated by HRV, but this did not translate into chronic increases in HR or BP
Second-hand smoking and obesity among non-smoking adolescents aged 12-15 years from 38 low- and middle-income countries
Published: 25/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Results The analyzed sample consisted of 88,209 adolescents aged 12-15 years who never smoked. The overall prevalence of non-daily and daily SHS was 34.2% and 15.7%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with no SHS, there was no significant association between non-daily SHS and obesity but adolescents who reported daily SHS were significantly more likely to have obesity (OR=1.19; 95%CI=1.06-1.34).
Vaping-Associated Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Case Classification and Clinical Guidance [Review]
Published: 24/02/2020, Critical Care Explorations
Conclusions: The reported spectrum of vaping-associated respiratory diseases allows clinical classification of cases into groups with distinct evaluation, management, and recommendations for prevention and follow-up. Clinical stratification also identifies a small proportion of vaping-exposed patients who are at risk for progression to hypoxemic respiratory failure and an acute respiratory distress syndrome-like illness.
Regulating Vaping – Policies, Possibilities, and Perils
Published: 25/03/2020, New England Journal of Medicine
Drifting Tobacco Smoke Exposure Among Young Adults in Multiunit Housing
Published: April 2020, Journal of Community Health
Abstract: This study evaluated young adults' exposure to drifting second-hand smoke in San Francisco County housing units using the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey. Multiunit housing was significantly associated with exposure across all neighbourhoods.
More Than Smoke and Patches: The Quest for Pharmacotherapies to Treat Tobacco Use Disorder [Review]
Published: April 2020, Pharmacological Reviews
Aims: The goal of the current review is twofold: first, to provide a brief overview of the most commonly used behavioral procedures for evaluating smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and an introduction to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of nicotine important for consideration in the development of new pharmacotherapies; and second, to discuss current and potential future pharmacological interventions aimed at decreasing tobacco use
The hazards of smoking and the benefits of cessation: a critical summation of the epidemiological evidence in high-income countries
Published: 24/03/2020, ELife
Abstract: In high-income countries, the biggest cause of premature death, defined as death before 70 years, is smoking of manufactured cigarettes. Smoking-related disease was responsible for about 41 million deaths in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada, cumulatively, from 1960 to 2020. Every million cigarettes smoked leads to one death in the US and Canada, but slightly more than one death in the UK. The 21st century hazards reveal that smokers who start smoking early in adult life and do not quit lose a decade of life expectancy versus non-smokers. Cessation, particularly before age 40 years, yields large reductions in mortality risk. Up to two-thirds of deaths among smokers are avoidable at non-smoking death rates, and former smokers have about only a quarter of the excess risk of death compared to current smokers. The gap between scientific and popular understanding of smoking hazards is surprisingly large.
Smoking and disability progression in multiple sclerosis
Published: 24/03/2020, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Introduction: …It is widely accepted that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis depends on a combination of genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Smoking is one of the risk factors for the development of MS that has also been suggested to adversely influence the severity and progression of the disease
Adolescent Personality Risk Factors for Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Misuse in Adult Men
Published: 23/03/2020, Substance Use and Misuse
Conclusion: Masculinity and nonconformity were related to addictive behaviors in men, which might have health policy implications. In this paper, associating traditional masculinity with health orientation in society is proposed as a possible preventive intervention
COVID-19 and Smoking: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Published: 20/03/2020, Tobacco Induced Diseases
We identified five studies that reported data on the smoking status of patients infected with COVID-19. Notably, in the largest study that assessed severity, there were higher percentages of current and former smokers among patients that needed ICU support, mechanical ventilation or who had died, and a higher percentage of smokers among the severe cases12. However, from their published data we can calculate that the smokers were 1.4 times more likely (RR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.98–2.00) to have severe symptoms of COVID-19 and approximately 2.4 times more likely to be admitted to an ICU, need mechanical ventilation or die compared to non-smokers (RR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.43–4.04).
In conclusion, although further research is warranted as the weight of the evidence increases, with the limited available data, and although the above results are unadjusted for other factors that may impact disease progression, smoking is most likely associated with the negative progression and adverse outcomes of COVID-19.
Using point-of-sale data to examine tobacco pricing across neighbourhoods in Scotland
Published: 19/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusion Across Scottish convenience stores, the purchase price of cigarettes and RYO was lower in more income-deprived neighbourhoods. The lower prices primarily reflect greater sales of cheap brands in these areas, rather than retailers reducing the prices of individual brands.
Projecting the future impact of past accomplishments in tobacco control
Results With expected smoking prevalence decreases from 2018 to 2037, Minnesotans will experience 12 298 fewer cancers, 72 208 fewer hospitalisations for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 31 913 fewer respiratory disease hospitalisations, 14 063 fewer smoking-attributable deaths, $10.2 billion less in smoking-attributable medical expenditures and $9.4 billion in productivity gains than if prevalence had stayed at 1997 levels. These gains are two to four times greater than for the previous 20 years, and would be about 15% higher if Minnesota achieves a 5% adult prevalence rate by 2037.
At the speed of Juul: measuring the Twitter conversation related to ENDS and Juul across space and time (2017–2018)
Published: 20/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Juul-related content grew exponentially on Twitter and spread across the entire country during the time when the brand was gaining market share. This social media buzz continued to increase even after FDA’s multiple interventions to curb promotions targeting minors.
Do state regulations on e-cigarettes have impacts on the e-cigarette prevalence?
Published: 22/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Results Despite the short history of state laws on e-cigarettes, each of the five state laws was associated with lower odds of initiation and use of e-cigarettes in the whole sample. In the 18–24 age group, only the licensure was associated with lower initiation. In the 25–34 age group, the licensure and taxation were related to lower initiation and current usage. There were significant differences of e-cigarette initiation and usage based on the number of state laws regulating e-cigarettes.
Impact of Pictorial Cigarette Warnings Compared With Surgeon General’s Warnings on Understanding of the Negative Health Consequences of Smoking
Published: 23/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Many of the pictorial cigarette warning tested increased understanding of the risks associated with cigarette smoking relative to current SG warnings.
Influence of Warning Statements on Understanding of the Negative Health Consequences of Smoking
Conclusions Findings suggest that revised Tobacco Control Act [US] statements can promote greater understanding of cigarette smoking risks. Results informed FDA’s selection of warning text that was paired with images for testing in a follow-up study.
Effects of Combined Coffee and Alcohol Use Over Cigarette Demand Among Treatment-Seeking Smokers
Published: 17/03/2020, Behaviour Processes
Conclusions: Alcohol and coffee use is associated with an elevated cigarette demand among treatment-seeking smokers. This finding suggests the need for specific interventions to reduce alcohol and coffee use in order to increase the effectiveness of treatments for smoking cessation.
Smoking Cessation After a Cancer Diagnosis Is Associated With Improved Survival
Published: 17/03/2020, Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Conclusions: Quitting smoking even after a cancer diagnosis is associated with improved cancer treatment outcomes according to the recently released 2020 Surgeon General’s Report (SGR). The 2020 SGR was focused specifically on smoking cessation and included a section on how smoking affects overall survival in patients with cancer. The report adds critical new evidence and conclusions by extending the evidence to reveal the benefit gained from quitting smoking even after a cancer diagnosis. The conclusion from the 2020 SGR is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship among smoking cessation and improved all-cause mortality in patients with cancer who are current smokers at the time of a cancer diagnosis.
Behaviour Change Techniques Associated With Smoking Cessation in Intervention and Comparator Groups of Randomised Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression
Published: 20/03/2020, Addiction
Conclusions: Amongst person-delivered behavioural smoking cessation interventions, specific behaviour change techniques and clusters of techniques are associated with higher success rates. Review
Association of initial e-cigarette and other tobacco product use with subsequent cigarette smoking in adolescents: a cross-sectional, matched control study
Published: 17/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusion Less than 1% of US adolescents who use e-cigarettes first were established cigarette smokers. They were less likely to be smokers than adolescents who tried other combustible or non-combustible tobacco products first and propensity score matched adolescents without initial e-cigarette use
Workplace smoke-free policies that allow heated tobacco products and electronic cigarettes use are associated with use of both these products and conventional tobacco smoking: the 2018 JASTIS study
Published: 18/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Workplaces that allow HTP/e-cigarette use indoors were associated with higher rate for HTP and e-cigarette users, and for combustible cigarette smokers. National legislation banning tobacco should be enforced and also cover HTPs and e-cigarettes in order to avoid renormalisation of smoking and nicotine addiction.
'Open-System’ electronic cigarettes cannot be regulated effectively
The goal of this commentary is to suggest that the current level of heterogeneity seen in open-system ECIGs is incompatible with effective regulation.
Possible New Symptoms of Tobacco Withdrawal III: Reduced Positive Affect—A Review and Meta-analysis
Published: 19/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions Abstinence from cigarettes is associated with a decrease in PA. Whether low PA should be added to withdrawal measures and diagnostic criteria requires replication of the time-course of change in PA and tests of whether abstinence-induced changes in PA and negative affect occur independently.
Associations Among Childhood Household Dysfunction, Sexual Orientation, and DSM-5 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substance Use Disorders in Adulthood: Evidence From a National U.S. Survey
Published: 16/03/2020, Journal of Addiction Medicine
Conclusions: Sexual minorities are more likely to have childhood household dysfunction which in turn is associated with a higher risk of developing DSM-5 alcohol, tobacco, and substance use disorders in adulthood, especially among sexual minority women. Healthcare providers who care for individuals raised in dysfunctional households should carefully assess risk for substance use disorders and intervene as needed.
Metal/Metalloid Levels in Electronic Cigarette Liquids, Aerosols, and Human Biosamples: A Systematic Review
Published: March/2020, Environmental Health Perspectives
Conclusion: E-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to metals/metalloids. Differences in collection methods and puffing regimes likely contribute to the variability in metal/metalloid levels across studies, making comparison across studies difficult. Standardized protocols for the quantification of metal/metalloid levels from e-cigarette samples are needed.
Smoking and Risk of Sleep-Related Issues: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Published: 17/30/2020, Canadian Journal of Public Health
Conclusions: Smoking is associated with sleep-related issues. Informing smokers about the effects of smoking on sleep issues can be effective in reducing and preventing its consequences.
Neural Substrates of Smoking and Reward Cue Reactivity in Smokers: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies
Published: 17/03/2020, Tranlational Psychiatry
Outline: The present results reveal the disruption of reward system function in smokers and provide new insights into diverging theories of addiction. With the escalation of nicotine dependence, nicotine appears to exert dynamic effects on reward processing, based on incentive sensitization theory and reward deficiency syndrome theory.
Metal Concentration Assessment in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Pilot Study
Published: 13/03/2020, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Conclusion: Transfer of the investigated elements to the EC aerosol was not found to be a substantial source of exposure in EC users who quitted smoking.
Estimated Worldwide Mortality Attributed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure, 1990-2016
Published: 02/03/2020, JAMA Network Open
Results: Globally, the SHS index changed favorably, from 31.3 individuals who smoked associated with the death of 1 individual who did not smoke in 1990 to 52.3 individuals who smoked in 2016. There was a wide regional variation in the 2016 secondhand smoke index
Associations Between Risk Perceptions and Cigarette, E-cigarette, and Dual-Product Use Among Canadian Adolescents
Published: 04/03/2020, Tobacco Use Insights
Conclusion: Results highlight that high perceived risk is associated with lower odds of use. However, those with a high-risk perception of both products had higher odds of e-cigarette use relative to cigarette-only users; as did those with high-e-cigarette and low-cigarette-risk perception, relative to nonusers. Future research should assess ways of communicating the risks of adolescent tobacco use.
World No Tobacco Day - What's in It for Us?
Published: 18/03/2020, American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Excerpt The 31st May 2020 is WHO World No Tobacco Day and the theme this year is ‘Protecting youth 33 from industry manipulation and preventing them from tobacco and nicotine use’ (1). WHO wishes 34 this year’s campaign to serve the following...
Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19
Published: 11/03/2020, The Lancet – Respiratory Medicine
…Taken together, these data seem to indicate that there might be a sex predisposition to COVID-19, with men more prone to being affected. This sex predisposition might be associated with the much higher smoking rate in men than in women in China (288 million men vs 12·6 million women were smokers in 2018)...
…Without strong evidence of an association between smoking and prevalence or severity of COVID-19 in Asian men compared with other subgroups, no firm conclusions can be drawn. .
Tobacco use trajectories in young adults: Analyses of predictors across systems levels
Published: 14/04/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Abstract: ...27-31% of participants reported past 30-day use of any tobacco product. We identified four trajectory classes: Abstainers/Dabblers who never or infrequently used (89.2%); Adult users who began using frequently around age 20 and continued thereafter (5.9%); College Smokers who began using before 19 but ceased use around 25 (2.5%); and Teenage users who used during their teenage years but ceased use by 22 (1.9%).
If at First You Don't Succeed, When Should You Try Again? A Prospective Study of Failed Quit Attempts and Subsequent Smoking Cessation
Published: 28/02/2020, Addiction Behaviours
Conclusions: While pre-planned analyses were inconclusive, exploratory analysis of retrospective reports of quit attempts and success suggested the likelihood of success of quit attempts may be positively associated with number of months since beginning a prior quit attempt. However, only the longest inter-quit interval examined (12-18 months) was associated with significantly greater odds of quit success relative to a <3 month interval in fully adjusted models; all other comparisons were inconclusive.
Timing of vape use among adolescents: Differences by family structure
Published: 1/04/2020, Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Results: Findings indicated that adolescents with divorced parents at Time 1 vaped earlier, and were 51% more likely to vape than adolescents with married parents. There were no gender differences, or differences in timing among those with divorced parents as a function of living with a step-parent.
Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of identifying familial risk factors associated with early vape use in adolescents.
Impaired Activation of Notch-1 Signaling Hinders Repair Processes of Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke
Published: 10/03/2020, Toxicology Letters
Conclusion cigarette smoke exposure, limiting Notch-1 signaling activation and hindering repair processes, amplifies injury processes in bronchial epithelial cells.
Case Series: Adolescent Victims of the Vaping Public Health Crisis With Pulmonary Complications
Published: 13/03/2020, Paediatric Pulmonology
excerpt: In patients suffering from e-cigarette-related respiratory illness including EVALI, the primary treatment goal should be the cessation of e-cigarette use and avoidance of other possible pulmonary toxins, including conventional cigarettes. Prevention of e-cigarette use is critical in the youth population, as these patients are typically nicotine naïve and do not engage in smoking conventional cigarettes before initiation of vaping.
Smoke, Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Female Fertility
Published: 12/03/2020, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
Results and conclusions: Currently, the most consistent evidences of a detrimental effect of smoke, alcohol and addictive drugs on specific domains of the female reproductive function are provided by experimental studies in animals. Overall, clinical studies suggest that smoking is associated to decreased fertility, although causal inference should be further demonstrated
Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes Differentially Activate Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Published: 12/03/2020, Respiratory Research
Conclusion: The transcriptome patterns of host defense and inflammatory genes are significantly distinct between ECIG-exposed and Traditional-CIG-treated cells. The overall effects of ECIGs on epithelial cells are less in comparison to TCIG, and ECIG-vapor does not affect host defense.
Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Higher Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents Participating in NHANES
Published: 09/03/2020, Preventative Medicine
Abstract: We assessed the relationship between acute and intermittent secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure with child and adolescent blood pressure (BP). Our findings provide the first characterization of the relationship between a major tobacco-specific metabolite, NNAL, and BP z-scores in a nationally representative population of US children.
Published: 10/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Although the association between e-cigarette use among non-smokers and subsequent smoking appears strong, the available evidence is limited by the reliance on self-report measures of smoking history without biochemical verification
Published: 12/03/2020, Psychology of Addictive Behaviours
Result: …greater endorsement of identifying as a smoker predicted more intense momentary urges to smoke, particularly when in the presence of other people than when alone.
Current findings are consistent with those found in prior samples and suggest that Anxiety Sensitivity is similarly related to Substance Use in African Americans, who may benefit from interventions that have been helpful in improving AS, dysphoria symptoms, and SU in other groups.
Published: 10/03/2020, International joural of Molecular Science
This study shows for the first time that CSE mediates the disruption of cartilage through inducing cell death by increasing oxidative stress, and that this effect is fortified by Dex. The deleterious effects of CSE on chondrocytes could be reversed by treatment with HA combined with first-line analgesic/anti-inflammatory agents.
Published: March/2020, Health Promotion and Chronic Diseases Prevention Canada
Results: Overall, 28.7% of adult Canadian survey respondents had urinary cotinine concentrations above the limit of detection (LOD), and the prevalence of each sleep problem ranged from 5.5% to 35.6%. Elevated urinary cotinine concentrations (quartile 4 vs. <LOD) were associated with significantly higher odds of short or long sleep duration, trouble falling or staying asleep, sleep dissatisfaction, and increased number of sleep problems. Stronger associations were observed among females compared to males.
The Effects of Cannabis Use: A Test Among Dual Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Users
Published: 11/03/2020, American Journal of Addiction
Discussion and conclusions: Overall, the current findings suggest cannabis may be an important type of substance use behavior that is relevant to e-cigarette dependence and beliefs about use and quitting among adult dual users.
Published: 11/03/2020, American Journal of Public Health
Published: 10/03/2020, Nature – Molecular Psychiatry
Our additional GWASs of nicotine intake biomarkers showed that cotinine and smoking intensity (cotinine/cigarettes per day (CPD)) shared chromosome 19 and chromosome 4 loci with the NMR, and that cotinine and a more accurate biomarker, cotinine + 3′hydroxycotinine, shared a chromosome 15 locus near CHRNA5 with CPD and Pack-Years (i.e., cumulative exposure). Understanding the genetic factors influencing smoking-related traits facilitates epidemiological studies of smoking and disease, as well as assists in optimizing smoking cessation support, which in turn will reduce the enormous personal and societal costs associated with smoking.
Published: 07/03/2020, American Journal of Preventative Medicine
Results Smoking prevalence was consistently higher among those with depression than those without depression. From 2005 to 2017, nondaily smoking did not significantly change among individuals with depression (9.25% to 9.40%), whereas it decreased from 7.02% to 5.85% among those without depression. By contrast, daily smoking declined among individuals with (25.21% to 15.11%) and without depression (14.94% to 9.76%)
Published: 09/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
[Editorial Commentary] While the prevalence of tobacco use in the general population has decreased significantly over the past four decades, there has been considerably less decline among people with socioeconomic disadvantages, mental health conditions, and other vulnerable populations.1This issue of Nicotine and Tobacco Research includes innovative studies of biological, social and environmental factors influencing tobacco use in vulnerable populations.
Published: 03/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Introduction: Minimum floor price laws (MFPLs) are an emerging tobacco control policy that sets a minimum price below which a specific tobacco product cannot be sold. Conclusions: MFPLs are a promising tobacco control strategy with the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparities in cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption.
Published: 05/03/2020, American Journal of Preventative Medicine
Conclusions Current e-cigarette use among U.S. youth is associated with higher odds of transitioning to regular cigarette smoking, likely reflecting robust transitions rather than experimentation. These results suggest that promoting e-cigarettes as the current practice for tobacco harm reduction will likely have the unintended consequence of initiating youth cigarette smokers.
Published: 06/03/2020, Arthritis Research and Therapy
Results: We found that compared with never smokers, genetic predisposition to smoking initiation was positively associated with risk of RA. Similarly, genetically predicted lifetime smoking was associated with an increased risk of RA. Sensitivity analyses using alternative MR methods and different sets of IVs produced similar results, suggesting the robustness of our findings.
Published: 05/03/2020, Epigenetics and Chromatin
Conclusions: In light of the extensive gene regulatory roles of multiple proteins involved in epigenetic control, the findings of this study that, Developmental Nicotine Exposure (DNE) elicits downregulation and aberrant posttranslational modification of these factors in both first- and second-generation DNE mice, suggest that epigenetic perturbations may constitute a mechanistic for the intergenerational transmission of DNE-induced neurodevelopmental disorder-like phenotypes.
Published: 05/30/2020, Addiction Biology
We report that nicotine exposure during adolescence (but not adulthood) induces profound upregulation of the ERK 1-2 and Akt-GSK-3 signalling pathways directly within the Nucleus Accumbens Shell, as well as downregulation of local Dopamine-type1-Receptor expression that persists into adulthood. This suggesting that they are involved in mediating adolescent nicotine-induced depressive and anxiety-like neuropathological trajectories.
Published: 04/03/2020, The International Journal For Drug Policy
In this article, we provide a critical analysis of the use of the gateway theory to justify Australian policy. We argue first that the evidence that vaping serves as a gateway to smoking is unconvincing. We describe an alternative regulatory model for Australia that would address legitimate concerns about preventing adolescent uptake while allowing adult smokers to access these products for cessation or as an alternative to smoking cigarettes.
Published: 04/03/03, Public Health England
A report commissioned by Public Health England
Published: 02/03/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions We found inequalities of SHA exposure across and within European countries. Governments should consider extending their tobacco smoke-free legislation to e-cigarettes to protect bystanders, particularly vulnerable populations such as young people.
Conclusions Sales of e-cigarette products to minors and the purposeful marketing of e-liquids in a manner that appeals to children and adolescents continues to be problematic. While the warning letters were successful in getting a majority of online retailers to correct the stated violation, many sold other products that would be considered a violation of marketing to minors. The appearance of e-liquids that contain prescription medications is also alarming. Comprehensive and continued enforcement of online e-cigarette retailers is urgently needed.
Results: At 6-months, 31.3% of Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) residents had adopted a smoke free home (versus 13.0% at baseline) and 16.9% reported CO-verified PPA. A positive attitude toward a SFH policy was associated with increased odds of SFH adoption. Voluntary SFH adoption was associated with increased PPA. PSH staff reported improved attitudes toward and self-efficacy in delivering cessation care, and decreased barriers to discussing smoking cessation among PSH residents between baseline and 3-months follow-up.
Published: 04/03/2020, Cochrane Database Systematic Review
Authors' conclusions: NRT used for smoking cessation in pregnancy may increase smoking cessation rates in late pregnancy. However, this evidence is of low certainty. We found no evidence that NRT has either positive or negative impacts on birth outcomes; however, the evidence for some of these outcomes was also judged to be of low certainty due to imprecision and inconsistency. We found no evidence that bupropion may be an effective aid for smoking cessation during pregnancy, and there was little evidence evaluating its safety in this population. Further research evidence on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy and e-cigarette use for smoking cessation in pregnancy is needed
Published: 02/03/2020, Harm Reduction Journal
Discussion: The available epidemiology does not change our prior beliefs, based on other evidence and knowledge, that the risks from smoke-free nicotine and tobacco are lower than those for smoking, though it suggests they are non-zero.
Published: Jun 2020, Addiction Behaviour
Findings suggest that ENDS use should be assessed in adolescents in both research and clinical settings. Importantly, ENDS use is strongly associated with co-occurring alcohol or marijuana use in adolescents [US].
Published: 19/02/2020, Cell
Abstract: In this narrative review, we provide a recent update on genetic contributions to RA and the environmental risks of RA with a special focus on cigarette smoking and its impacts on RA pathology. We also describe gene-environmental interaction in RA pathogenesis with an emphasis on cigarette smoking and HLA-DRB1.
Published: 01/03/2020, Waste Management
Cigarette butts, one of the most abundant forms of waste in the world, contain more than 4000 toxic chemicals and pose serious risks to the health of wildlife, humans, and marine and freshwater organisms. Although trivial in size, trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in the accumulation of tonnes of toxic waste litter. In 2016, a world production of over 5.7 trillion cigarettes was reported with the majority comprising cellulose acetate filters - a polymer with poor biodegradability. Depending on the environmental conditions, cellulose acetate filters can take up to 10 years to decompose during which time they leach heavy metals and toxic chemicals into the environment….
Published: 03/03/2020, Chemical Research In Toxicology
Published: 27/02/2020, Tobacco Control
Results Total e-cigarette advertising expenditures in print, radio, television, Internet and outdoors decreased substantially from US$133 million in 2014 to US$48 million in 2017, followed by an increase to US$110 million in 2018. By media type, expenditures were highest for print advertising, irrespective of year. By manufacturer, Altria had the highest e-cigarette advertising expenditures, totalling over US$134 million during 2014–2018. Imperial Tobacco had the second highest, totalling over US$85 million during 2014–2018, while JUUL Labs had the highest single-year expenditures, spending over US$73 million in 2018 alone.
Conclusion: Post-T21, few participants were refused purchase of any tobacco product, despite the illegality of such sales. Better enforcement of T21 is needed to improve the efficacy of T21 legislation
Introduction Heated tobacco products (HTPs) have been available in the Korean market since June 2017. Many adolescents, especially conventional cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users, had already used HTPs shortly after the introduction of HTPs in Korea. The use of newer types of tobacco products is associated with lower odds of abstinence from CCs; therefore, it is important to protect adolescents from them
Published: 02/03/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results: Smoking prevalence is now similar between gay (21.6%), prefer-not-to-say (20.5%) and heterosexual men (20.0%), and lesbian (18.3%) and heterosexual women (16.9%), but remains higher among bisexual men (28.2%) and bisexual women (29.8%) and lower among prefer-not-to-say women (14.5%). Among smokers, bisexuals were less addicted than heterosexuals, with bisexual men smoking fewer cigarettes per day and bisexual women less likely to start smoking within 30 minutes of waking than heterosexuals. However, motivation to stop smoking and quit attempts did not differ significantly.
Published: 03/2020, Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Abstract: The developing adolescent brain is vulnerable to nicotine exposure, which can lead to long-lasting cognitive and mood disorders. Screening rates for vaping are low and lack of knowledge by adolescents, clinicians, parents, and caregivers is high. This article reviews the components of vaping, prevalence, adverse reactions, regulation, treatment, and prevention strategies related to vaping in youth and young adults.
Published: 28/02/2020, Journal of Women’s Health
Results: 4.0% reported e-cigarette use (regardless of other tobacco use), 27.3% reported conventional cigarette use without e-cigarette use (conventional cigarette use), and 939 68.8% reported no tobacco or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product use during the preconception period and/or pregnancy. Seventy-four percent of women using e-cigarettes reported also using conventional cigarettes.
Published: 28/02/2020, Journal of Public Health
Conclusions: The UK needs better reporting and corporate taxation standards. Tobacco companies should be made to pay more profit based taxation, such as by extending the surcharge on corporation tax currently paid by UK banks, and by making sure companies pay appropriate taxes when reorganizing corporate structures.
Published: 27/02/2020, CNS Drugs,
Conclusions: SSS, particularly in Spearhead localities, were expanded up to 2011/12, and this broadly coincides with the reduction in health inequalities. This suggests that although SSS did not achieve the scale anticipated, they have important potential, and the current demise of SSS should not be tolerated.
Impact of Smoking on Metabolic Changes and Effectiveness of Drugs Used for Lung Cancer
Published: March 2020, Central European Journal of Public Health
This article reviews the published studies dealing with the influence of cigarette smoking on metabolic changes and effectiveness of drugs used in the systemic chemotherapy of the lung cancer. Primarily, we addressed potential differences in drug effects on smokers and non-smokers. The increased clearance of erlotinib and irinotecan may have impact on effectiveness of the lung cancer therapy. The effects of taxanes and gemcitabine are more complex.
Thirdhand Smoke: Genotoxicity and Carcinogenic Potential
Published: March 2020, Clinical Disease and Translational Medicine
In this perspective, we mainly summarize all published studies on the genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential of Thirdhand Smoke THS exposure. These studies begin to fill the knowledge gap in our understanding of cancer risk of THS.
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