Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 01/05 - 28/05
Nicotine delivery and user ratings of IQOS heated tobacco system compared to cigarettes, Juul and refillable e-cigarettes
Published: 13/05/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Conclusion: IQOS’ pharmacokinetic profile suggests that it may be less effective than Juul for smoking cessation, but at least as effective as refillable e-cigarettes; although participants, who were experienced vapers rather than IQOS users, preferred refillable e-cigarettes.
The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers
Published: 13/05/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusion: There is a paucity of scientific literature on the effectiveness of NRT for light smokers. Our findings suggest that individualized doses of NRT may be helpful in these sub-populations, and highlights the different treatment needs of light smokers.
Rewarding effects of nicotine self-administration increase over time in male and female rats
Conclusions: Overall, these findings indicate that the rewarding effects of nicotine self-administration increase over time, and there are no sex differences in the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine self-administration in rats.
Evaluation of a smoking cessation patient decision aid that integrates information about e-cigarettes
Conclusions: Smoking cessation decision aids that incorporate information about e-cigarettes are acceptable among smokers and can lead to evidence-based clinical discussions about smoking cessation.
Effects on smoking behavior of switching menthol smokers to non-menthol cigarettes
Conclusions: These results suggest that were menthol cigarettes no longer available, those that switch to non-menthol cigarettes would not change their smoking behavior in a way that is likely to be more hazardous, with some indicators suggesting that there may be some benefit.
Beyond Strong Enforcement: Understanding the Factors Related to Retailer Compliance with Tobacco 21
Conclusions: These studies emphasize the many, multi-level factors influencing T21 outcomes. Findings also indicate the potential for T21 to widen disparities in tobacco use, indicating the need for strategies to equitably improve T21 compliance.
Tobacco industry marketing adaptations to Singapore plain packaging
Published: 12/05/2021, Tobacco Control
Results: Around Singapore’s plain packaging phase-in, tobacco companies launched variants with flavour capsules, novelty filter features and new flavours and used more descriptive variant names reflecting the variant’s colour coding or market positioning. Tobacco companies revamped some existing variants, often with Japanese marketing themes to convey a more premium product image. After plain packaging, tobacco companies used longer packs and variations in stick length, filter length and foil texture to further differentiate products.
Electrical features, liquid composition and toxicant emissions from ‘pod-mod’-like disposable electronic cigarettes
Results: We found that unlike JUUL, disposable devices did not incorporate a microcontroller to regulate electrical power to the heating coil. Quality of construction varied widely. Disposable e-cigarette power ranged between 5 and 9 W and liquid nicotine concentration ranged between 53 and 85 mg/mL (~95% in the protonated form). In 15 puffs, total nicotine yield for the disposables ranged between 1.6 and 6.7 mg, total carbonyls ranged between 28 and 138 µg, and total metals ranged between 1084 and 5804 ng. JUUL emissions were near the floors of all of these ranges.
Bronchial gene expression signature associated with rate of subsequent FEV1 decline in individuals with and at risk of COPD
Published: 04/05/2021, Thorax
Conclusion: We have identified and replicated an airway gene expression signature associated with the rate of FEV1 decline. Aspects of this signature are related to increased expression of XBP1-regulated genes, a transcription factor involved in the unfolded protein response, and genes related to mucin production. Collectively, these data suggest that molecular processes related to the rate of FEV1 decline can be detected in airway epithelium, identify a possible indicator of FEV1 decline and make it possible to detect, in an early phase, ever smokers with and without COPD most at risk of rapid FEV1 decline.
IL-6 as a Mediator of the Association Between Traditional Risk Factors and Future Myocardial Infarction: A Nested Case-Control Study
Published: 04/04/2021, Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Conclusions: IL-6 and IL-6 binary complex concentration in plasma were significantly associated with future MI. Our data additionally imply that both the elevated plasma IL-6, and the IL-6 binary complex concentration could partly explain, and, thus, might hypothetically be functionally associated with the increased risk of MI in smokers and hypertensive participants.
Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Mobile Apps for Smoking Cessation in France: Content Analysis
Published: 13/05/2021, JMIR, Mhealth and Uhealth
Conclusions: The content quality of popular smoking cessation apps in France varied by app type and price. Most popular apps propose in general good quality content but lack implementation of evidence-based BCTs associated with effectiveness on smoking cessation treatment. Further research is needed to evaluate the improvement in the content quality of smoking cessation apps in France.
Prenatal nicotine exposure was associated with long-term impact on the cardiovascular system and regulation-review
Published: 13/05/2021, Acta Peadiatrica
[Review] Conclusion: Prenatal nicotine exposure was associated with long-term developmental changes in the cardiovasular system and regulation. There were no safe periods, doses or nicotine products during pregnancy and women should abstain when planning a pregnancy. [Review]
Waterpipe smoking: a review of pulmonary and health effects
Published: 11/05/2021, European Respiratory Review
Overview: This review summarises the negative health effects of waterpipe smoking, with emphasis on cardiorespiratory complications. Increased awareness and knowledge amongst healthcare professionals will hopefully help identify waterpipe smokers and promote patient education. Applying World Health Organization (WHO) regulations will provide a synergistic effect in reducing waterpipe use and associated disease.
Reactions to reduced nicotine content cigarettes in a sample of young adult, low-frequency smokers
Published: 12/05/2021, Psychopharmacology
Conclusions: Reducing nicotine content will likely lower the abuse liability of cigarettes for most young, low-frequency smokers. Additional work is needed to determine if compensatory smoking may lead to increased toxicant exposure, and if a subset of individuals choosing lower nicotine cigarettes may continue to smoke regardless of nicotine content.
Global Patterns and Prevalence of Dual and Poly-Tobacco Use: A Systematic Review
Published: 02/05/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Results: Twenty studies with nationally representative prevalence data on current dual or poly-tobacco use in the adult population across 48 countries were included. Definitions of dual and poly-tobacco use varied widely. Prevalence of dual and poly-tobacco use was higher in low- and lower-middle-income countries compared to other higher-income countries. Current dual use of smoked and smokeless tobacco products among males ranged from 0.2% in Ukraine (2010) and Mexico (2009) to 17.9% in Nepal (2011). Poly-tobacco use among males ranged from 0.8% in Mexico (2009) and 0.9% in Argentina (2010) to 11.4% in the UK and 11.9% in Denmark in 2012. Dual tobacco use was generally higher in South-East Asia; poly-tobacco use was prevalent in Europe as well as in South-East Asia.
Sensory effects of nicotine and tobacco
Published: 06/05/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Abstract: Ingestion of nicotine by smoking, vaping or other means elicits various effects including reward, antinociception, and aversion due to irritation, bitter taste and unpleasant side effects such as nausea and dizziness. Here we review the sensory effects of nicotine and the underlying neurobiological processes.
The Illegal Experimental Tobacco Marketplace I: Effects of VapingProduct Bans
Conclusions: Restricting vaping products from the marketplace may shift preference towards purchasing vaping products in the illegal marketplace. Nevertheless, penalties imposed on consumer's behavior might be effective in preventing illicit trade. The IETM is a methodological extension that supports the utility and flexibility of the ETM as a framework for understanding the impact of different tobacco regulatory policies
Central obesity, smoking habit and hypertension are associated with lower antibody titers in response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine
Published: 06/05/2021, Diabetes, Metabolisms Research and Reviews
Conclusions: Central obesity, hypertension and smoking are associated with lower Ab titers following COVID-19 vaccination. Although it is currently impossible to determine whether lower SARS CoV-2 Abs lead to higher likelihood of developing COVID-19, it is well-established that neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection against several viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Our findings, therefore, call for a vigilant approach, as subjects with central obesity, hypertension and smoking could benefit from earlier vaccine boosters or different vaccine schedules.
Which tobacco control policies do smokers support? Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey
Published: 03/05/2021, Preventative Medicine
Results: In all countries, the highest level of support was for raising the legal age for purchase to 21 years and older (62-70%) and reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to make them less addictive (57-70%). Smokers who were less dependent on cigarettes and those expressing interest in quitting were more likely to support all policies. When asked how they would respond to a nicotine reduction policy, the most common response given was to try the non-nicotine cigarettes to see how they liked them (42-48%), with the next most common response being to quit smoking entirely (16-24%). The high level of support for these proposed policies among daily smokers provides important evidence for policymakers to counteract claims that such policies would be unpopular.
The impact of E-cigarette vaping and vapour constituents on bone health
Published: 05/05/2021, Journal of Inflammation (London)
Conclusion: Understanding the function and mechanism of action of the various components of E-cigarette vapour in mediating human bone cell function, in addition to long term studies to determine the potential harm of chronic E-cigarette use on human bone will be important to inform users of potential risks, particularly regarding bone healing following orthopaedic surgery and inju
Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs toward group behavior therapy programs among male adults attending smoking cessation clinics, cross-sectional analysis
Published: 05/05/2021, BMC Public Health
Conclusion: The study demonstrates a deficit in knowledge about group behavior therapy and it shows that the level of education was associated with the knowledge. Additionally, previous attempts to quit smoking and the number of cigarettes used per day, influenced the participants' attitude and beliefs toward group behavioral therapy. Increase awareness about the role of group behavior therapy in smoking cessation is required before this method is implemented in the routine practice
Prospective estimation of the age of initiation of cigarettes among young adults (18-24 years old): Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1-4 (2013-2017)
Published: 05/05/2021, PloS One
Results: Among the young adults who were never cigarette users at their first wave of adult participation, the highest increase in cigarette initiation occurred between 18 and 19 years old. By age 21, 10.6% (95% CI: 9.5-11.7) initiated ever cigarette use, 7.7% (95% CI: 6.1-8.1) initiated past 30-day of cigarette use, and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) initiated fairly regular cigarette use. After controlling for other tobacco products: (a) males were 83% more likely to initiate past 30-day cigarette use at earlier ages than females; (b) Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black young adults had increased risk to initiate past 30-day cigarette use at earlier ages than Non-Hispanic White young adults (62% and 34%, respectively).
Correlation between tobacco control policies and mortality of haematological cancers across Europe: An ecological study
Published: 30/04/2021, Tobacco Prevention and Cessation
Conclusions: The level of tobacco control policies in European countries correlates negatively with leukemia mortality at ecological level, with no correlation seen for lymphoma and MM. This study advocates that increased tobacco control implementation may improve leukemia mortality.
Comparison of Nicotine Dependence and Biomarker Levels among Traditional Cigarette, Heat-Not-Burn Cigarette, and Liquid E-Cigarette Users: Results from the Think Study
Published: 29/04/2021, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Results: The median(interquartile range) nicotine dependence level was not different among the three types of smokers, being 3.0 (2.0-5.0) for TC- (n = 726), 3.0 (1.0-4.0) for EC- (n = 316), and 3.0 (2.0-4.0) for HNBC- (n = 377) only users. HNBC-only users presented similar biomarker levels compared to TC-only users, except for NNAL (HNBC: 14.5 (4.0-58.8) pg/mL, TC: 32.0 (4.0-69.6) pg/mL; p = 0.0106) and CEMA (HNBC: 60.4 (10.0-232.0) ng/mL, TC: 166.1 (25.3-532.1) ng/mL; p = 0.0007). TC and HNBC users showed increased urinary cotinine levels as early as the time after the first smoke of the day. EC users' biomarker levels were possibly lower than TC or HNBC users' but higher than those of non-smokers.
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