Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 01/11 - 27/11
Early Cardiovascular Risk in E-cigarette Users: the Potential Role of Metals
Published: 26/11/2020, Current environmental Health Reports
Recent findings: [review study] In vitro studies show cytotoxicity and increased oxidative stress in myocardial cells and vascular endothelial cells exposed to e-liquids and e-cig aerosols, with effects partially reversed with antioxidant treatment. Numerous studies show that e-cigs are a source of cardiotoxic metals. Experimental studies (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies) show acute toxicity of e-cigs to the vascular system. Studies of long-term toxicity in animals and humans are missing.
Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2019
Published: 20/11/2020, MMWR
In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million U.S. adults (20.8%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (14.0%), e-cigarettes (4.5%), cigars (3.6%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%).† Most current tobacco product users (80.5%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.6% reported using two or more tobacco products.§ The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher among males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults; those whose highest level of educational attainment was a General Educational Development (GED) certificate; those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adults; uninsured adults and those with Medicaid; those with a disability; or those with mild, moderate, or severe generalized anxiety disorder. E-cigarette use was highest among adults aged 18-24 years (9.3%), with over half (56.0%) of these young adults reporting that they had never smoked cigarettes.
Self-Reported Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Support for Complete Smoking Bans in Multiunit Housing Among Smokers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom
Published: 25/11/2020, Preventing Chronic Diseases
Results: Overall, 53.0% of smokers living in single-family homes completely banned smoking in their homes, compared with 44.8% of smokers in MUH. Across all 3 countries, only 27.8% of MUH smokers reported that smoking was completely prohibited in their building. A similar percentage of MUH smokers who banned smoking in their home but lived in buildings allowing smoking reported a secondhand smoke incursion into their home in the United States (29.9%; 95% CI, 20.4%-41.5%), Canada (38.4%; 95% CI, 26.7%-51.6%), and the United Kingdom (24.7%; 95% CI, 15.7%-36.7%). Across all 3 countries, 36.1% (95% CI, 33.4%-38.9%) of smokers in MUH reported they preferred a complete smoking ban in all building areas.
Examining market trends in smokeless tobacco sales in the United States: 2011-2019
Published: 26/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results: SLT sales increased by 5.8% between 2011 and 2016 but declined by 3.9% from 2016 to 2019. Moist snuff sales increased by 8.1% between 2011 and 2016 and then declined 7.4% from 2016 to 2019 but still accounted for roughly 90% of the overall market annually. Between 2011 and 2019, snus sales consistently increased while sales of chew, dry snuff, and dissolvables decreased. Tobacco-free nicotine products emerged in 2016 and captured 4.0% of the market by 2019
‘I’m killing myself, but I’m saving the planet’: rolling tobacco smokers’ perceptions of rolling papers
Published: 23/11/2020, Tobacco Control
Results Rolling papers were often viewed as functional, a necessity for making roll-ups. The appeal of papers was based on the packaging, with a booklet-style pack of natural papers viewed very positively, as well as novelty, usability and taste/smell. Participants often associated papers with particular users, with prerolled cones and some flavoured papers thought to be used by cannabis smokers or younger people and those just starting to smoke. In terms of harm perceptions, natural papers were viewed as a healthier choice than standard papers and more environmentally friendly, whereas transparent papers raised concerns about safety to both the user and the environment.
An Evaluation of Potential Unintended Consequences of a Nicotine Product Standard: A Focus on Drinking History and Outcomes
Published: 21/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: We did not support negative unintended consequences of a nicotine product standard. Nicotine reduction in cigarettes generally impacted smoking behavior for individuals who do not drink or drink light-to-moderate amounts in similar ways. Extended VLNC cigarette use may improve public health by reducing drinking behavior.
Implementation Intentions to Reduce Smoking: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Implications: Brief, free, and easily scalable, Implementation Intention (II) interventions to prevent smoking are highly attractive for anti-smoking efforts. This review outlines the circumstances under which II interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in helping people resist smoking cigarettes. We illuminate gaps in the existing literature, limitations and methodological discrepancies between studies, and areas for future study.
Association of Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Use With Cigarette Smoking Progression or Reduction Among Young Adults
Published: 26/11/2020, JAMA Network Open
Results: The present cohort analyses included 1096 young adult (YA) (18-24yo) ever smokers who were ENDS naive at wave 1. The majority of the sample were women (609 [55.6%]) and white individuals (698 [63.7%]), and the mean (SD) age was 21.4 (1.9) years. In wave 1, 161 YAs (14.7%) were daily smokers in the previous 30 days. After propensity score matching, no statistically significant associations were observed between any definition of wave 2 ENDS use and changes in either the frequency or intensity of smoking at wave 3.
Transcriptomic analysis of tobacco-flavored E-cigarette and menthol-flavored E-cigarette exposure in the human middle ear
Published: 27/11/2020, Scientific Reports
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the gene expression profile and identify potential molecular modulator genes and pathways in HMEEC-1 (human middle ear cell line) exposed to two different e-liquids (tobacco- and menthol-flavored). A total of 843 genes were differentially expressed following exposure to the tobacco-flavored e-liquid, among which 262 genes were upregulated and 581 were downregulated. Upon exposure to the menthol-flavored e-liquid, a total of 589 genes were differentially expressed, among which 228 genes were upregulated and 361 were downregulated. In addition, we identified related cellular processes, including inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis, under exposure to tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-liquids. We identified differentially expressed genes and related cellular processes and gene signaling pathways after e-cigarette exposure in human middle ear cells. These findings may provide useful evidence for understanding the effect of e-cigarette exposure.
Addressing the challenges of E-cigarette safety profiling by assessment of pulmonary toxicological response in bronchial and alveolar mucosa models
Published: 24/11/2020, Scientific Reports
Our findings indicate that ECIG toxicity is influenced by combination of multiple factors including flavor, nicotine content, vaping regime, and the region of respiratory tree (bronchial or alveolar). Toxic chemicals and flavoring agents detected in high concentrations in the E-smoke of each flavor warrant independent evaluation for their specific role in imparting toxicity. Therefore, multi-disciplinary approaches are warranted for comprehensive safety profiling of ECIG.
Main and Interactive Effects of Nicotine Product Type on Sleep Health Among Dual Combustible and E-Cigarette Users
Published: 24/11/2020, American Journal of Addictions
Results: Combustible cigarette frequency uniquely predicted shorter sleep duration, whereas e-cigarette frequency uniquely predicted increased daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness. Further, there was an interactive effect of combustible and electronic cigarettes on the use of sleeping medications.
Polygenic risk scores for late smoking initiation associated with the risk of schizophrenia
Published: 23/11/2020, Nature Publishing Group: Schizophrenia
Results: These findings suggest that genetic factors affecting late smoking initiation are associated with the risk of schizophrenia.
Secondhand smoke exposure in outdoor children's playgrounds in 11 European countries
Published: 20/11/2020, Environmental International
Results: Airborne nicotine presence was found in 40.6% of the playgrounds. Median nicotine concentration was <0.06 μg/m3 (Interquartile range: <0.06-0.125) and higher median concentrations were found in more deprived neighborhoods, non-regulated playgrounds, in countries with lower overall TCS scores, higher national smoking prevalence and higher SHS exposure prevalence in playgrounds. Overall, people were smoking in 19.6% of the playgrounds. More than half of playgrounds had cigarette butts visible inside (56.6%) and in the immediate vicinity (74.4%). Presence of butts inside playgrounds was higher in sites from a low area-level SES, in countries with low TCS scores, and greater smoking prevalence and SHS exposure prevalence (p<0.05).
Prevalence of Young Adult Vaping, Substance Vaped, and Purchase Location Across 5 Categories of Vaping Devices
Published: 19/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Conclusions: Across all devices, the prevalence of self-purchase of vaping devices among underage young adults in the Los Angeles area was high, and most were purchased from a vape shop or online. Tobacco control policies to prevent underage purchase of tobacco products – particularly among never smokers – are needed.
Tobacco Imagery in The 20 Best Selling Video Games of 2018
Published: 16/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Conclusions: Popular video games continue to expose players to tobacco imagery. Because video games are played repeatedly, the potential exists for adolescents to experience even more tobacco imagery than the baseline exposure established here, further increasing the potential for harm. Existing voluntary and regulatory approaches to policing tobacco content are inadequate; thus, policymakers should consider further interventions to minimize tobacco content in video games.
E-cigarettes and cessation: the introduction of substantial bias in analyses of PATH Study
Published: 14/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
[Letter] This letter sets out arguments that a recent paper on the use of e-cigs as a cessation device from the PATH study, overestimates the effect of e-cig as a successful cessation device.
Creating a market for IQOS: analysis of Philip Morris’ strategy to introduce heated tobacco products to the Australian consumer market
Published: 15/11/2020, Tobacco Control
Results Philip Morris has actively lobbied Australian policy-makers to overturn bans on nicotine-containing products. Information obtained from key informants and Philip Morris’ government submissions indicates that the company’s goal is for heated tobacco products in Australia to be regulated in a new product category, exempt from tobacco control laws. Informants revealed that Philip Morris was also working to establish a network of upmarket pubs, clubs and bars where they could sell IQOS once legalisation was achieved.
Reactions to messages about smoking, vaping and COVID-19: two national experiments
Conclusions Messages linking smoking with COVID-19 may hold promise for discouraging smoking and may have the added benefit of also discouraging vaping.
Published: 20/11/2020, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
In 2019, approximately 20.8% of U.S. adults (50.6 million) currently used any tobacco product. Cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among adults, and e-cigarettes were the most commonly used non-cigarette tobacco product (4.5%). The highest prevalence of e-cigarette use was among smokers aged 18–24 years (9.3%), with over half (56.0%) of these young adults reporting that they had never smoked cigarettes.
Effectiveness of community health workers involvement in smoking cessation programme: A systematic review
Published: 20/11/2020, PLoS One
Result: The intervention duration range from 6 weeks to 30 months. The studies used behavioral intervention or a combination of behavioral intervention and pharmacological treatment. Overall, the smoking cessation intervention that incorporated involvement of Community health workers had higher smoking cessation rates [OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.35, 2.83)]. Significant smoking cessation rates were seen in two studies.
Twenty-Four-Hour Cardiovascular Effects of Electronic Cigarettes Compared With Cigarette Smoking in Dual Users
Published: 19/11/2020, Journal of the American Heart Association
Conclusions CS and EC had similar 24-hour patterns of hemodynamic effects compared with no tobacco product, with a higher average heart rate with CS versus EC, and similar effects on biomarkers of inflammation. EC may pose some cardiovascular risk, particularly to smokers with underlying cardiovascular disease, but may also provide a harm reduction opportunity for smokers willing to switch entirely to EC.
Cigarette Smoke Preparations, Not Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Preparations, Induce Features of Lung Disease in a 3D Lung Repeat-Dose Model
Published: 18/11/2020, American Journal of Physiology
Results: We show that 1-hour daily exposure of NHBE (lung cell) cultures over a 10-day period to combustible cigarette whole smoke-conditioned media (WS-CM) increased expression of oxidative stress markers, cell proliferation, airway remodeling, cellular transformation markers, and decreased mucociliary function including ion channel function and airway surface liquid. Conversely, aerosol conditioned media (ACM) from ENDS with similar nicotine concentration (equivalent-nicotine units) as WS-CM and nicotine alone had no effect on those parameters.
Impact of secondhand smoke exposure on cognitive function among middle-aged and older women in China: findings from three waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Published: 17/11/2020, BMJ Open
Conclusions: Household SSH exposure for more than 40 years was associated with a more significant decline in global cognitive function, visuospatial ability and episodic memory function, but not in orientation and attention function among older Chinese women.
Experimenting first with e-cigarettes versus first with cigarettes and transition to daily cigarette use among adolescents: the crucial effect of age at first experiment
Published: 17/11/2020, Addiction
Conclusions: Experimenting with e-cigarettes first (as opposed to tobacco first) appears to be associated with a reduction in the risk of daily tobacco smoking among French adolescent at ages 17-18.5, but this risk varies negatively with age at experimentation, and early e-cigarette experimenters are at higher risk.
Can You Believe Your Patients If They Say They Have Quit Smoking?
Published: 16/11/2020, Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Conclusions: Self-reported smoking status in the orthopaedic population is fairly reliable, with 13% of patient's inaccurately self-reporting smoking cessation despite knowing their smoking status was being measured. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for inaccuracy in self-reported smoking cessation, particularly in patients with the identified socioeconomic factors.
From Smoking-Permitted to Smokefree Prisons: A 3-Year Evaluation of the Changes in Occupational Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Across a National Prison System
Published: 16/11/2020, Annals of Work Exposure and Health
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive international study to objectively measure SHS levels before, during, and after implementation of a smokefree policy across a country's prison system. The findings confirm that such a policy change can be successfully implemented to eliminate occupational exposures to SHS. The results are highly relevant for other jurisdictions considering changes to prison smoking legislation.
Effect of Pod e-Cigarettes vs Cigarettes on Carcinogen Exposure Among African American and Latinx Smokers - A Randomized Clinical Trial
Published: 18/11/2020, JAMA Network Open
Meaning: This randomized clinical trial found that switching to fourth generation nicotine salt pod system (NSPS) e-cigarettes among adult smokers did not increase nicotine exposure and led to short-term reduction in the major pulmonary carcinogen, NNAL, compared with continued smoking.
Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Incident Respiratory Conditions Among US Adults From 2013 to 2018
Published: 12/11/2020, JAMA network Open
Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that e-cigarette use was associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory disease independent of cigarette smoking. These findings add important evidence on the risk profile of novel tobacco products.
Exploring the Twitter activity around the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
Published: 11/06, Tobacco Control
Background Tobacco companies’ intentions to influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) via the Conference of Parties (COP; the official biannual meeting where Parties review the Convention) are well documented. We aimed to analyse Twitter data to gain insights into tobacco industry tactics, arguments and allies. Conclusions The nature of the activity on Twitter around COP8, including a substantial online presence by PMI executives and NGP advocates with links to organisations funded directly and indirectly by PMI, is highly consistent with PMI’s 2014 corporate affairs strategy, which described engaging tobacco harm reduction advocates to ‘amplify and leverage the debate on harm reduction’ around events such as the COP.
Ethics and harm reduction approaches in tobacco control
Published: 08/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Ethical consideration and stances around harm reduction
Bar Atmospherics and Smoking: A Qualitative Analysis of New Zealand Young Adult Smokers
Published: 09/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Background: We examined whether and how outdoor bar areas facilitate and normalise young adult smoking, and explored potential policy implications. Conclusions: Evidence bar environments facilitate and normalise smoking among young adults questions whether smokefree policies should be expanded to include all bar areas. Introducing more comprehensive smokefree outdoor policies could reduce the influence of design attributes that foster smoking while also reframing smoking as outside normal social practice.
The effect of smoking on chronic inflammation, immune function and blood cell composition
Published: 10/11/2020, Scientific Reports
Conclusion: As well, total leukocytes were significantly higher, driven by increases in granulocytes and monocytes. In addition, smokers had lower NK cells and higher Tregs than controls, suggesting that smoking may reduce the ability to kill nascent tumor cells. Importantly, there was substantial person-to person variation amongst smokers with some showing markedly different values from controls and others showing normal levels of many parameters measured, indicating the former may be at significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer.
The effect of long term nicotine exposure on endothelial function in rats
Published: 10/11/2020, Drugs, Chemical Toxicology
Conclusion: It has been concluded that long term nicotine exposure does not have serious effects on endothelial vasodilator response directly and does not change protein expression of NOS or Nox enzymes. However, more studies should be done for the exact mechanisms responsible for the effect of nicotine on endothelial function.
Effect of e-Cigarettes Plus Counseling vs Counseling Alone on Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Published: 10/11/2020, JAMA
Question: What is the effect of e-cigarettes, added to individual counseling, on smoking cessation?Findings : In this randomized clinical trial that was terminated early after enrolling 376 of a planned 486 participants, individuals randomized to nicotine e-cigarettes plus counseling, compared with counseling alone, had significantly greater 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 weeks (21.9% vs 9.1%, respectively), although the difference was no longer statistically significant at 24 weeks.
Randomized Trials of e-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
Smoking Intention and Progression From E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Smoking
Published: 09/11/2020, Paediatrics
Conclusions: E-cigarette use is associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking among adolescents who had no previous smoking intention. E-cigarette use may create intention to smoke and/or nicotine use disorder that lead to onset of cigarette smoking.
Adolescent Susceptibility to E-Cigarettes: An Update From the 2018 National Youth Tobacco Survey
Published: 10/11/2020, American Journal of Health Promotion
Conclusion: In the 2018 National Youth Tobacco Survey (12-17yo) adolescent sample, perceptions of harm and ease of tobacco product purchase appear to be significantly related to higher odds of e-cigarette susceptibility, in addition to other demographic factors. Longitudinal data, particularly cohort data following adolescents from susceptible to actual or no use, are needed to assess predictors of e-cigarette use initiation.
Methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and risk of cancer in adulthood
Published: 10/11/2020, International Journal of Epidemiology
Conclusions: We found that methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking are associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential for using DNA methylation to investigate the impact of early-life, unmeasured exposures on later-life cancer risk.
Responsibility, normalisation and negotiations of harm: E-cigarette users' opinions and experiences of vaping around children
Published: 06/11/2020, International Journal of Drug Policy
Conclusion: Vaping is likely to be role modelled within the community and home despite attempts by e-cigarette users to conceal the behaviour. The ambivalent contextualisation of e-cigarettes means that e-cigarette users may lack a clear narrative to draw on when discussing vaping with children. Public health guidance for vaping around children could be helpful, but to be most effective, should take into consideration users' vaping identity.
E-cigarette Use Alters Nasal Mucosal Immune Response to Live-Attenuated Influenza Virus (LAIV)
Published: 23/10/2020, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Our results demonstrate that e-cigarette use altered nasal LAIV-induced immune responses, including gene expression, cytokine and chemokine release, and LAIV-specific IgA levels. Together, these data suggest that e-cigarette use induces changes in the nasal mucosa consistent with the potential for altered respiratory antiviral host defence function
Simulating the density reduction and equity impact of potential tobacco retail control policies
Published: 05/11/2020, Tobacco Control
Results Policies restricting tobacco sales to a single outlet type (‘Supermarket’; ‘Liquor store’; ‘Pharmacy’) caused >80% TOD reduction and >90% reduction in the number of tobacco outlets nationally. However, RIIs indicated that two of these policies (‘Liquor store’, ‘Pharmacy’) increased socioeconomic inequalities in TOD. Equity-promoting policies included ‘Minimum spacing’ and exclusion zones around ‘Child spaces’. The only policy to remove statistically significant TOD inequalities was the one deliberately targeted to do so (‘Reduce clusters’).
Potential impact of eliminating illicit trade in cigarettes: a demand-side perspective
Published: 03/11/2020, Tobacco Control
Findings Illicit cigarettes account on average for 11.2% of the market in these 36 countries. The elimination of illicit cigarettes would reduce total cigarette consumption by 1.9% across these countries. The decrease in ‘group A’ countries—where illicit cigarettes are >15% of the market—would average 4.1%. The smoking rate would decrease by 1.0% in relative terms including by 2.2% in group A countries. Tax revenues from the legal sale of cigarettes would increase by 11.2% including by 25.1% in group A countries.
Accessing vaping products when underage: A qualitative study of young adults in Southern California
Published: 03/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results Four concepts emerged: (1) Early experimentation of e-cigarettes with peers often occurred in a school setting, (2) Continued use of e-cigarettes commonly obtained through peer sales, (3) Inconsistent implementation of age restrictions at in-person retailers and (4) at online retailers. Participants had peers purchase products on their behalf and frequented in-person and online retailers with few to no age verification processes. Few participants faced challenges when purchasing products from retailers.
Tobacco retail environment and smoking: a systematic review of geographic exposure measures and implications for future studies
Published: 06/11/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Results Forty articles were eligible out of 3,002. Higher density values were mostly associated with higher smoking prevalence (76.2%), greater tobacco use and smoking initiation (64.3%); and lower cessation outcomes (84.6%). Proximity measures were not associated with any smoking outcome except with cessation (62.5%).
Switching stories: user testimonials on juul.com continue to contradict JUUL’s switch ≠ cessation narrative
Conclusion This study presents a foundation for understanding how adult users describe JUUL, including their experiences using JUUL to ‘switch’ or stop smoking. Currently, the effectiveness of ENDS for smoking cessation is not supported by substantial evidence; however, if cessation is defined as ‘quitting combustible tobacco products’, then regulators should be aware that switch and cessation messages may not be distinct.
Burden of disease from exposure to secondhand smoke in children in Europe
Published: 04/11/2020, Paediatric Research
Results: Exposure to SHS and its attributable burden stalled in 2006-2017; in pregnant women, SHS exposure was 19.8% in 2006, 19.1% in 2010, and 21.0% in 2017; in children it was 10.1% in 2006, 9.6% in 2010, and 12.1% in 2017. In 2017, 35,633 DALYs among children were attributable to SHS exposure in the EU, mainly due to low birth weight.
Neighbourhood greenspace and smoking prevalence: Results from a nationally representative survey in England
Published: 21/10/2020, Social Science and Medicine
Excerpt: This suggests that the association between greenspace and current smoking is due to a higher likelihood of smoking cessation, rather than lower rates of ever- smoking. The associations between greenspace, current smoking and smoking cessation were similar in magnitude to those of having high (vs. low) household income and were largely unmoderated by socioeconomic measures
Predicting smoking behavior: intention and future self-continuity among Austrians
Published: 04/11/2020, Psychological Health and Medicine
Conclusion: Participants' future self-continuity further explained the variance of smoking behavior. Our study demonstrates the utility of the TPB in understanding Austrian smoking behavior. The role of psychological perception of future self among smokers has been highlighted. Future smoking intervention may target PBC, affective attitude, as well as a life-span perspective.
Synergistic effect of smoking on age-related hearing loss in patients with diabetes
Published: 03/11/2020, Scientific Reports
Results: Smoking and diabetes showed the strongest significant synergistic effect on age-dependent hearing loss (ARHL) (odds ratio [OR] 1.963). In the subgroup analysis based on smoking status, current smokers with diabetes had a significant relationship with ARHL (OR 1.883), whereas ex-smokers with diabetes did not.
Relationship between Comorbid Drug Use Disorders, Affective Disorders, and Current Smoking
Published: 03/11/2020, Substance Use and Misuse
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking was higher in the nearly 40% of respondents characterized by psychiatric disorders, particularly those with drug use disorders.
Tobacco use disorder and the lungs
Published: 03/11/2020, Addiction
Excerpt: Cessation at any age confers substantial health benefits, even in smokers with established morbidities. As other treatments for chronic respiratory disease advance and survival rates increase, smoking cessation treatment will become even more relevant. Whilst smoking cessation interventions are available, the offer of these by clinicians and uptake by patients remain limited.
E-cigarette use is associated with subsequent cigarette use among young adult nonsmokers, over and above a range of antecedent risk factors: A propensity score analysis
Conclusion: E-cigarette use is associated with subsequent cigarette use among young adult nonsmokers, over and above a range of antecedent risk factors: A propensity score analysis
Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacotherapeutic Smoking Cessation Aids in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Subgroup Analysis of EAGLES
Published: 03/11/2020, Psychiatric Services
Conclusions: For smokers with schizophrenia, varenicline led to significantly higher abstinence rates, and numbers-need-to-treat was comparable to the control group. A significant proportion of neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPSAEs) occurred during early abstinence. No treatment significantly increased NPSAE prevalence.
Secondhand smoking and neurological disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies
Published: 02/11/2020, Reviews on Environmental Health
Conclusions Secondhand smoking was found to be positively associated with risks of stroke and cognitive impairment, while inversely associated with risk of PD.
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