Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 03/10 - 30/10
Australian smokers’ experiences and perceptions of recessed and firm filter cigarettes
Published: 28/10/2020, Tobacco Control
Background While cigarette filter modifications have long been used to increase product appeal and assuage health concerns, tighter marketing restrictions, including plain packaging, have further spurred the growth of filter variants. We explored and assessed experiences and perceptions of smokers who had tried and/or currently use recessed filter cigarettes (RFCs) and firm filter cigarettes (FFCs). Conclusion RFCs and FFCs undermine plain packaging legislation, which aims to reduce appeal and minimise misperceptions about the relative harms of different tobacco products. Like other filter modifications, these filter variants should be disallowed.
Changes in responses to nicotine vaping product warnings and leaflets in England compared with Canada, the US and Australia: findings from the 2016–2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys
Published: 30/10/2020, Tobacco Control
Conclusions Introduction of mandatory NVP warnings and leaflets in England was associated with small increases in noticing them but not with changes in concerns about NVP use.
Nicotine Dependence in Dual Users of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: Common and Distinct Elements
Published: 24/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications Although underlying dimensions of nicotine dependence may be similar for ENDS and cigarettes, separate, product-specific measures may be needed to understand differences in product-specific dependency and predict changes in use of each product over time.
The Intersection between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Environmental Tobacco Smoke in U.S. Households with Children
Published: 27/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results A large majority of households characterized by Environmental tobacco Smoker (ETS) report one or more Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), while households without ETS are largely void of ACEs. Findings indicate that this association is not merely a function of general family member smoking, as ACEs are strongly and uniquely associated with family smoking inside the housing unit – above and beyond family members smoking more generally.
A mixed-methods systematic review and synthesis of secondary care interventions to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among children and young people
Published: 24/10/20, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results There was some evidence of effective interventions that resulted in a short-term (< 6 months) reduction in children’s SHSe when SHSe was subjectively measured. This was not seen in longer term follow-up (> 6 months) or when SHSe was measured objectively. Inconsistencies with reporting make replication challenging.
Experiential evidence suggests a mismatch between stakeholder preferences and interventions being offered.
Associations Between Peer Use, Costs and Benefits, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent E-cigarette Use
Published: 29/10/2020, Journal of Paediatric Psychology
Conclusion: Peer use, self-efficacy to resist use, and expectations of cost and benefits of e-cigarette use should be considered as possible targets when devising tailored interventions and policies to prevent or reduce negative health consequences of long-term e-cigarette use.
Disparities in E-Cigarette and Tobacco Use Among Adolescents With Disabilities
Published: 29/10/2020, Prevention of Chronic Diseases
Results: Students with disabilities were more likely to use a variety of tobacco products compared with their nondisabled peers, including cigarettes (12.3% vs 5.4%), little cigars (7.0% vs 5.4%), hookahs (6.2% vs 3.8%), and e-cigarettes (18.3% vs 12.3%). In adjusted models, students with a disability were more likely to report using combustibles only (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.55), e-cigarettes only (aPR, 1.36), or dual use (aPR, 1.52) compared with nondisabled students.
The relative impact of acute nicotine and tobacco administration on craving, withdrawal, and cigarette self-administration in dependent and nondependent smokers
Published: 29/10/2020, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Conclusion: While subjective ratings and smoking behavior were largely comparable across LITS and DDS, differing patterns of withdrawal symptoms suggest that dependent smoking is motivated by negative reinforcement while nondependent smoking is not.
Assessing the effect of nicotine dose in cigarette smoking on sleep quality
Published: 29/10/2020, Sleep & Breathing
Conclusion: While previous studies established a relation either between cigarette smoking and sleep or between nicotine patches and sleep, the present study is the first to establish that higher nicotine doses in cigarettes were associated with more sleep disturbances.
Relationships between Smoking Status, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Lipoproteins in a Large Japanese Population
Published: 28/10/2020, Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Conclusion: Our data indicate that current cigarette smoking is associated with increased TG and sdLDL-C levels, as well as decreased HDL-C levels. Furthermore, smoking effect on lipid profiles remain after cessation. These data provide further justification for smoking cessation.
Childhood Smoking, Adult Cessation, and Cardiovascular Mortality: Prospective Study of 390 000 US Adults
Published: 28/10/2020, Journal of the American Heart Association
Conclusion: Overall, current smokers in this contemporary US population had nearly 3 times the risk of premature cardiovascular mortality compared with never smokers. The risk was higher among those who had begun smoking in childhood (<15 years), and highest of all for those who had begun before age 10 years. However, quitting at any age was associated with a substantially lower risk than continuing to smoke, with the greatest risk reduction among those who quit before age 40 years.
Quantile regression of tobacco tax pass-through in the UK 2013–2019. How have manufacturers passed through tax changes for different tobacco products?
Published: 22/10/2020, Tobacco Control
Results: Following increases in the specific tax payable on tobacco, we find evidence of overshifting across the price distribution for both FM and RYO. The rate of the overshift in tax increased the more expensive the products were. This was consistent for FM and RYO. Additionally, our findings suggest that the introduction of standardised packaging was not followed by changes in how the tobacco industry responded to tax increases.
Seasonal variation in demand for smoking cessation treatment and clinical outcomes
Published: 21/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications: Demand for tobacco cessation treatment and clinical outcomes vary seasonally. This underscores the importance of context in substance-related problems, and implies that some variability in research and evaluation results may be due to the time of year data were collected. Promotion efforts might usefully consider seasonal effects to smooth out demand and possibly improve outcomes.
Vape Shop Employees: Do They Act as Smoking Cessation Counselors?
Published: 23/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: This study conducted in the US showed that, most vape shop employees provide advice to customers who desire to quit cigarette smoking and initiate electronic cigarette use. However, they report a low level of awareness about e-cigarette research. Future research is warranted to examine the specifics of advice provided by vape shop employees. Training programs for vape shop employees and educational campaigns about evidence-based scientific findings on vaping may be beneficial.
Changes in Cigarette Consumption With Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes Among Smokers With Psychiatric Conditions or Socioeconomic Disadvantage - 3 Randomized Clinical Trials
Published: 20/10/2020, JAMA Network Open
Findings: These 3 randomized clinical trials including 775 participants with affective disorders, opioid use disorder, or socioeconomic disadvantage found that reducing nicotine content significantly decreased total cigarettes smoked daily and nicotine dependence severity.
The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding on human milk composition—a systematic review
Published: 22/10/2020, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Conclusion: Smoking was associated with a lower content of lipids, calories, and proteins. Moreover, it was characterized by decreased antioxidant properties and an altered immune status. Smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding is significantly associated with an alteration of milk metabolic properties. Further studies are needed to investigate how these changes can alter newborns’ development and outcomes and which molecular patterns are involved.
Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation induces brown adipose tissue whitening in female offspring
Published: 19/10/2020, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Conclusion: maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to the "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult female offspring: nicotine decreased BAT angiogenesis in the early development stage, and then, the impairment of blood vessels programed for the reduction of BAT phenotype through down-regulating the PGC-1αUCP1 signals in adulthood. This impairment of BAT may be a potential mechanism of nicotine-induced obesity in female offspring.
Trends in the psychosocial characteristics of 11-15-year-olds who still drink, smoke, take drugs and engage in poly-substance use in England
Published: 22/10/2020, Drug and Alcohol Review
Results: Use of all substances decreased and there were shifts in the psychosocial characteristics of young smokers, illicit drug users and poly-substance users. The proportion of current smokers and ever-users of cannabis of low SES and who had been excluded increased significantly between 2001/2003-2014. The proportion of last month drug users who had been excluded from school also increased significantly and there were increases in the proportion of polysubstance-users who had truanted and been excluded. The proportion of low SES alcohol users who had been excluded also increased significantly, but this change was very small. There was no evidence of substance use becoming more or less concentrated in one gender.
The Effect of Passive Smoking on Mucociliary Clearance and Inferior Concha Reactivity
Published: 21/10/2020, The American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
Discussion: Passive smoking can damage the nasal mucosa at least as active smoking. The number of studies on this subject is limited. There are no studies in the literature showing the effect of cigarette smoke on the inferior turbinate mucosal response. In our study, the inferior turbinate decongestant capacity was found to be significantly decreased in the passive smokers compared to the control group
The prevalence of depression symptoms after smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 21/10/2020, Journal of Addictive Diseases
Results: The prevalence of depression in the smoking cessation population was 18% and the confidence interval was 14-22%. The highest depression prevalence was in Asia and Europe, followed by America. The prevalence of major depression in the smoking cessation population was 15% and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17%. The smoking cessation population had a lower odds of depression than current smokers (OR= 0.63 CI = 0.54-0.75; I2 83.9%).
Genome-wide association study of smoking trajectory and meta-analysis of smoking status in 842,000 individuals
Published: 20/10/2020, Nature Communication
Conclusion: Overall, this large GWAS of longitudinal smoking phenotype in multiple populations, combined with a meta-GWAS for smoking status, adds new insights into the genetic vulnerability for smoking behavior.
Characteristics of Patients in Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Addiction Who Succeed in Changing Smoking, Weight, and Physical Activity: A Secondary Analysis of an RCT on Combined Lifestyle Interventions
Published: 20/10/2020, European Addiction Research
Conclusions: Having several unhealthy lifestyles in addition to alcohol and drug addiction was a significant predictor of successful lifestyle changes in the short- and long term after the VIP for lifestyle interventions. Likewise, education was significant. The results should be considered in future development and research among this vulnerable group of patients.
Electronic cigarette use among 14- to 17-year-olds in Europe
Published: 20/10/2020, European Journal of Public Health
Results: About 34% had tried e-cigarettes, but the variation was large between the cities (Latina 50%; Hanover 23%). Of e-cigarette ever-users, 37% had used nicotine e-liquid, 43% exclusively non-nicotine liquid and 20% did not know the content. Nicotine e-liquid was more prevalent among monthly e-cigarette users and weekly smoking e-cigarette users. The social correlates were mainly the same for exclusive e-cigarette ever-use, exclusive conventional cigarette ever-use and dual-use. Boys had greater odds for exclusive e-cigarette and dual-use compared to girls. Of social correlates, low academic achievement and parental smoking were positively associated with all categories of use, but parental education and immigrant background were not. The strongest association was found between peer smoking (most/all best friends smoke) and dual-use (OR 34.29).
Inferences beyond a claim: a typology of potential halo effects related to modified risk tobacco product claims
Published: 13/10/2020, Tobacco Control
Abstract: When tobacco products are marketed with modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) claims, consumers may infer additional health benefits not directly stated in the claims. We propose a typology of seven potential ‘halo effects’ (ie, an unintended generalisation) that may occur with MRTP marketing. Evidence currently exists that some of these types of halo effects occur after exposure to MRTP claims.
Associations Between Family and Peer E-Cigarette Use with Adolescent Tobacco and Marijuana Usage: A Longitudinal Path Analytic Approach
Published: 10/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Analysis demonstrated the strong association of family members’ and peers’ behaviors with adolescent e-cigarette use, and the temporal precedence of e-cigarette use with subsequent combustible cigarettes and marijuana uptake. The predictive implications of e-cigarettes for other dangerous substance use should be examined in future prevention campaigns.
Associated Changes in E-cigarette Puff Duration and Cigarettes Smoked Per Day
Published: 13/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Among smokers switching to an e-cigarette, greater increases in e-cigarette puff duration was associated with greater reductions in cigarette smoking.
Smoke-free Policies in the Global South
Evaluation of Respiratory Symptoms Among Youth e-Cigarette Users
Published: 13/10/2020, JAMA Network open
Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, use of ECs alone was not associated with increased odds of experiencing wheezing episodes. Future studies incorporating the use of objective data appear to be needed to more accurately understand the potential respiratory harms associated with vaping among adolescents.
Demographic Characteristics, Cigarette Smoking, and e-Cigarette Use Among US Adults
Published: 13/10/2020, JAMA Network Open
Discussion: We estimate a vaping prevalence of 2.3% among US adults. An estimated 39.1% of e-cigarette users were current smokers and 37.9% were former smokers. A majority of both groups reported using or having used e-cigarettes to help them quit cigarette smoking. Whether vaping actually helps smokers quit is unclear, however, and cannot be evaluated using cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies and trials are needed to answer this important question and to determine the long-term health effects of dual use, which was the most common pattern of use reported. The large number of former smokers who currently vape is additionally worrisome, given recent reports that former smokers who vape are more likely to experience a smoking relapse. Additionally, 23.1% of e-cigarette users reported never smoking, and most were younger than 35 years. In addition to the potential health effects of vaping, the young age of many users is concerning, particularly as nicotine is highly addictive and can negatively affect brain development, which continues until age 25 years.
An exploratory non-randomized study of a 3-month electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) intervention with people accessing a homeless supported temporary accommodation service (STA) in Ireland
Published: 12/10/2020, Harm Reduction Journal
Conclusion: ENDS-based interventions may be effective with this population. Future research should aim to improve follow-up, consider including behavioural components and monitor health effects in relation to ongoing concerns around risks and the balance of harms
Effect of Sustained Smoking Cessation Counseling and Provision of Medication vs Shorter-term Counseling and Medication Advice on Smoking Abstinence in Patients Recently Diagnosed With Cancer
Published: 13/10/2020, JAMA Network
Findings: In this randomized clinical trial of 303 patients, conducted at 2 National Cancer Institute–designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, sustained telephone counseling over 6 months and provision of free medication compared with 4-week telephone counseling and medication advice resulted in 6-month biochemically confirmed quit rates of 34.5% vs 21.5%, a difference that was statistically significant.
Effectiveness of contingency management for smoking cessation in substance users: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 08/10/2020, Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
Conclusions: Contingency Management (type of behavioural therapy) for smoking cessation in individuals with substance use disorders performs significantly better than control conditions in reducing smoking at end-of-treatment.
The impact of tobacco smoking on treatment choice and efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease
Published: 13/10/2020, Intestinal Research
Abstract excerpt: [Review]Smoking increases the risk of postoperative recurrence in those requiring resection for CD, likely attributable to perturbations of the gut microbiota although further implications of these for disease onset/progression and treatment efficacy remain unclear. Multiple lifestyle and psychosocial confounders are likely under-recognized cofactors in the association between smoking and IBD.
Analysis of submissions to the EU’s public consultation on tobacco traceability and security features
Published: 06/10/2020, Tobacco Control
Background The Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products requires all parties to establish a tobacco track and trace (T&T) system. In 2016, the European Commission held a public consultation on T&T implementation where parties were asked to respond online to 22 multiple-choice questions and were given additional opportunities to leave comments. In May 2019, the European Union’s (EU) T&T system became operational. This paper explores tobacco industry influence over and policy positions within the consultation process. Findings: Of the 197 consultation respondents identified, 131 (66.4%) had financial links to the industry; 29 (22.1%) were not transparent about these links
Nicotine, Cotinine, and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines Measured in Children’s Silicone Wristbands in Relation to Secondhand Smoke and E-cigarette Vapor Exposure
Published: 03/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Silicone wristbands show promise for sensitive detection of exposure to tobacco-related contaminants from traditional and electronic cigarettes and have potential for tobacco control efforts.
The Genetic and Environmental Influences Contributing to the Association between Electronic and Conventional Cigarette Initiation
Published: 06/10/2020, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Results: Using a sample of young adult twins, ages 15-20 the results showed combined contributions of additive genetic and shared environmental influences were significant for cigarette smoking and Ecigs, while unique environmental influences were significant, for cigarette and Ecig smoking. Results also demonstrated a significant overlap of the unique environmental and familial influences contributing to correlation between the two phenotypes in the bivariate analysis.
Cellular effects of nicotine salt-containing e-liquids
Published: 09/10/2020, Journal of Applied Toxicology
Conclusion: Nicotine salt-based e-liquids cause cytotoxicity and elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ , indicating that they can exert biological effects beyond what would be expected with nicotine alone. These effects are flavor-dependent, and we propose that flavored e-liquids be reassessed for potential lung toxicity.
Trends in E-Cigarette Use by Age Group and Combustible Cigarette Smoking Histories, U.S. Adults, 2014–2018
Published: 05/10/2020, American Journal of Preventative Medicine
Conclusions The continuous increase among younger-adult never smokers suggests a rise in primary nicotine initiation with e-cigarettes. The concomitant increase among near-term quitters of all age groups suggests continuing e-cigarette use among smokers who may have switched from cigarettes previously.
Young Adults as a Tobacco Control Priority Population in the US
Published: 06/10/2020, JAMA
[Invited Commentary] Commentary on “Trends in the age of cigarette smoking initiation among young adults in the US from 2002 to 2018” JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2019022.
Implementing a context-driven awareness programme addressing household air pollution and tobacco: a FRESH AIR study
Published: 06/10/2020, Nature Primary care and Respiratory Medicine
Intro: Most patients with chronic respiratory disease live in low-resource settings, where evidence is scarcest. Conclusion: We conclude that contextualising the awareness programme to diverse low-resource settings can be feasible, acceptable and effective, and increase its sustainability. This paper provides guidance to translate lung health interventions to new contexts globally.
The mortality of lung cancer attributable to smoking among adults in China and the United States during 1990-2017
Published: 08/10/2020, Cancer Communications
Conclusions: During 1990-2017, the lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking and the period effect are generally increasing in Chinese adults; the mortality attributable to smoking is decreasing in the US adults, but the period effect tends to be stable. The rapid aging and prevalence of smoking may intensify the increasing mortality of lung cancer in China.
Changes in lipid composition associated with electronic cigarette use
Published: 07/10/2020, Journal of Translational Medicine
Conclusions: In summary, our study does not reveal striking changes associated with electronic cigarette use but we observed sex-specific changes in lipids known to be critical for lung function
Reported patterns of vaping to support long-term abstinence from smoking: a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of vapers
Published: 06/10/2020, Harm Reduction Journal
Results: Most participants were self-reported long-term abstinent smokers (86.3%) intending to continue vaping. Most initiated e-cigarette use with a vape pen (45.8%) or cig-a-like (38.7%) before moving onto a tank device (89%). Due to missing data, managed through pairwise deletion, only around 70 participants were included in some of the main analyses. Those using a tank or vape pen appeared less likely to relapse than those using a cig-a-like (tank vs. cig-a-like OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.64, p = 0.019). There was an inverse association between starting self-reported e-cigarette liquid nicotine concentration and relapse, interacting with device type (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99, p = 0.047), suggesting that risk of relapse may have been greater if starting with a low e-cigarette liquid nicotine concentration and/or cig-a-like device. Participants reported moving from tobacco-flavored cig-a-likes to fruit/sweet/food flavors with tank devices.
Does smoking cause lower educational attainment and general cognitive ability? Triangulation of causal evidence using multiple study designs
Published: 07/10/2020, Psychological Medicine
Conclusion: We find some evidence of a causal effect of smoking on lower educational attainment, but not cognitive ability. Triangulation of evidence across observational and MR methods is a strength, but the genetic variants associated with smoking initiation may be pleiotropic, suggesting caution in interpreting these results. The nature of this pleiotropy warrants further study.
Tobacco smoke exposure limits the therapeutic benefit of tezacaftor/ivacaftor in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis
Published: 03/10/2020, Journal of Cystic Fribrosis
Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure nullifies the therapeutic benefit of tezacaftor/ivacaftor among individuals with CF aged 12-20 years old. To maximize the therapeutic opportunity of CFTR modulators, every effort must be taken to eliminate smoke exposure in CF.
The Impact of Smoking on Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Published: 06/10/2020, Journal of Clinical Peridontology
Conclusions: Smoking negatively impacts clinical responses to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Smokers with periodontitis have significantly less PD reduction and CAL gain than non-smokers.
Treating tobacco dependence to aid Re-employment among job-seekers: A randomized controlled trial
Published: 03/10/2020, Preventative Medicine
Conclusions: In a diverse sample with economic hardships, quit attempts and smoking reduction were greater in the intervention group; however, few achieved abstinence, and neither abstinence nor re-employment differed by condition. A priority group, further research is needed on smoking and re-employment.
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