Taking action on smoking and health
Search period: 28/08 - 01/10
Synthetic nicotine has arrived
Published: 07/90/2021, Tobacco Control
Special Communication: The introduction of a new product line of the popular disposable electronic cigarette brand Puffbar, advertised as containing synthetic nicotine, has drawn attention to the increasing use of synthetic nicotine in marketed products and its uncertain regulatory status. […] Vendors claim that the FDA has no authority to regulate synthetic nicotine as a tobacco product, allowing them to circumvent the premarket tobacco product application process. However, legal analysis suggests that FDA may have the authority to regulate synthetic nicotine as a drug. Alternatively, Congress needs to include nicotine from any source within the legal definition of tobacco products.
Associations of tobacco retailer density and proximity with adult tobacco use behaviours and health outcomes: a meta-analysis
Published: 03/09/2021, Tobacco Control
Conclusions: Across studies, lower levels of tobacco retailer density and decreased proximity are associated with lower tobacco use. Reducing tobacco supply by limiting retailer density and proximity may lead to reductions in tobacco use. Policy evaluations are needed.
Population-level interventions and health disparities -the devil is in the detail
Published: 09/09/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Editorial excerpt: To speed up progress towards curbing the global tobacco epidemic, there have been calls for population-level interventions aimed at reducing both the prevalence and uptake of tobacco. Carefully designed population-level interventions may reduce tobacco-related health
disparities too. Conversely, if these interventions are not sensitive to the existing social
gradient between population subgroups, they can inadvertently widen inequalities
Nicotine metabolism predicted by CYP2A6 genotypes in relation to smoking cessation: A systematic review
Published: 03/09/2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Implications: Most studies included in this review were of European ancestry populations; these showed slower nicotine metabolism was associated with increased likelihood of smoking cessation in a dose-related manner. Pharmacotherapy appeared to attenuate or modify this association among people of European ancestry, but it is unclear whether the change in the association remains consistent after treatment ceases. This finding has implications for precision medicine cessation interventions. Based on only a few studies of people of Asian or African ancestry, the association between CYP2A6 variants and cessation may differ from that observed among those of European ancestry, but more evidence is needed.
Human Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco and Nicotine Products: Approaches for Meeting Current Regulatory Recommendations
Implications: This review provides a practical inspection of the current, international regulatory recommendations for abuse liability assessment of tobacco, regulatory review of such information within the U.S., and recommends study designs and methods for abuse liability testing of tobacco products based on scientific and regulatory knowledge.
Antecedents and Consequences of Smoking Cessation Intention in the Context of the Global COVID-19 Infodemic
Published: 08/2021, Frontiers in Public Health
Conclusions: The study found that cessation intention partially mediated the effect of perceived severity and fully mediated the effects of perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and addiction on support for control measures. In addition, a positively-valenced message of the effect of smoking on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 vs. a mixedly-valenced message was significant in predicting cessation intention, and the positively-valenced message of smoking indirectly predicted support for tobacco control measures. Perceived susceptibility, barriers, and subjective norms, however, exerted neither direct nor indirect effects on the two outcome variables.
Explosions, Burn Injuries and Adverse Health Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Review of Current Regulations and Future Perspectives
Published: 09/2021, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacological Sciences
Conclusions: Overall, the current literature demonstrates that ENDS are not a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes due to explosion risks and negative health effects including addiction, adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, heavy metal leaching, and toxic byproducts exposure. These risks warrant regulation of ENDS devices and formulations, with urgency underscored by their increasing popularity among youth and adults.
Genome-wide methylation data improves dissection of the effect of smoking on body mass index
Published: 09/09/2021, PLOS Genetics
Conclusion: …We estimated that genetics accounted for 50% of the variation in BMI. Self-reported smoking status contributed only 2% of BMI variation, increasing to 22% when estimated using DNA methylation. Interactions between genes and smoking contributed an extra 10%.
Development and testing of relative risk-based health messages for electronic cigarette products
Published: 08/09/2021,Harm Reduction Journal
Conclusions: These alternative messages provide a useful resource for future research and for policy makers considering updating e-cigarette product labelling.
Association between electronic nicotine delivery systems and electronic non-nicotine delivery systems with initiation of tobacco use in individuals aged < 20 years. A systematic review and meta-analysis
Published: 08/09/2021, PLoS One
Findings: …Ever users of ENDS/ENNDS had over three times the risk of ever cigarette use (Adjusted Risk Ration (ARR) 3·01) , and current cigarette use had over two times the risk (ARR 2·56) at follow up. Among current ENDS/ENNDS users, there was a significant association with ever (ARR 2·63) but not current cigarette use (ARR 1·88) at follow up. For other tobacco use, ARR ranged between 1·55 and 8·32 for waterpipe and pipes, respectively. Additionally, two studies examined the use of ENNDS (non-nicotine devices) and found a pooled ARR of 2·56. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for policies that regulate the availability, accessibility, and marketing of ENDS/ENNDS to children and adolescents. Governments should also consider adopting policies to prevent ENDS/ENNDS uptake and use in children and adolescents, up to and including a ban for this group
The Comparative Effectiveness of Varenicline and Nicotine Patches for Smoking Abstinence During Pregnancy: Evidence From a Population-based Cohort Study
Published: October 2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Conclusions: Varenicline was almost three times more effective than nicotine patches in assisting pregnant women to quit smoking. Further studies are needed to corroborate our results. Together with data on the safety of varenicline during pregnancy, evidence regarding the relative benefit of varenicline and NRT during pregnancy important for informing clinical decisions for pregnant smokers.
Self-Reported Quit Aids and Assistance Used By Smokers At Their Most Recent Quit Attempt: Findings from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey
Results: Among all respondents, at last quit attempt, 28.8% used NRT, 28.0% used an NVP, 12.0% used OPT, 7.8% used a cessation service, 1.7% used a tobacco product, 16.5% other cessation support, and 38.6% used no aid/assistance. Slightly more than half of all smokers and ex-smokers (57.2%) reported using any type of pharmacotherapy (NRT or OPT) and/or an NVP, half-used NRT and/or an NVP (49.9%), and 38.4% used any type of pharmacotherapy (NRT and/or OPT). A quarter of smokers/ex-smokers used a combination of aids.
The Relationship Between Trauma Exposure and Adult Tobacco Use: Analysis of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (III)
Published: October 2021, Nicotine and Tobacco Control
Results: Approximately 44% of participants had experienced trauma; 6% experienced trauma + PTSD. Trauma exposed participants had a higher prevalence of tobacco use (30%––46% vs. 22%) and poly-tobacco use (34%––35% vs. 28%) than unexposed participants. Cigarettes were the most used tobacco product; trauma + PTSD (19%), and trauma (15%) participants had a higher prevalence of e-cigarette use than unexposed participants (11%). Trauma exposure was associated with current tobacco use (AOR = 1.36 trauma + PTSD; 1.23 trauma) (but not former use), particularly among participants exposed to violence/abuse (AOR = 1.23). Personality and substance use disorders were strongly associated with current and former tobacco use.
Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Quit Attempts Among Teenagers in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Study
Published: 29/08/2021, Cureus
Conclusion: This study did not show a statistically significant association between the awareness and use of e-cigarettes, and heated tobacco products and tobacco smoking quit attempts. Race, age, and exposure to household tobacco smoking were positively associated with quit attempts. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the use and awareness of e-cigarettes and HTPs are associated with tobacco smoking quit attempts within the US adolescent population.
Increased Smoking Cessation among Veterans with Large Decreases in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severity
Conclusions: Patients with clinically meaningful PTSD improvement were significantly more likely to stop smoking. Further research should determine if targeted interventions are needed or whether improvement in PTSD symptoms is sufficient to enable smoking cessation.
Galantamine as a Treatment Option for Nicotine Addiction
Published: 17/07/2021, Journal of Smoking Cessation
Abstract: Varenicline is the only established drug used to alleviate symptoms of craving as it acts as a partial nicotine agonist. Galantamine has a similar mechanism of action where it is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic receptor agonist. However, varenicline is the only recommended drug. There are not many studies to illustrate the effectiveness of galantamine for smoking cessation. This article explores the possibility of potential use of galantamine in alleviating the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
Effects of brief exposure to misinformation about e-cigarette harms on twitter: a randomised controlled experiment
Published: 01/09/2021, BMJ Open
Conclusions: US and UK adult current smokers may be deterred from considering using e-cigarettes after brief exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes were just as or more harmful than smoking. Conversely, US adult current smokers may be encouraged to use e-cigarettes after exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes are completely harmless. These findings suggest that misinformation about e-cigarette harms may influence some adult smokers' decisions to consider using e-cigarettes.
Oral and periodontal implications of tobacco and nicotine products
Published: October 2021, Peridontology 2000
Review: This review provides an overview of selected tobacco and nicotine products with an emphasis on their implications for periodontal disease risk and clinical management. Also presented are strategies for tobacco use counselling and cessation support that dental professionals can implement in practice.
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